(AC) Chapter 9: Fundamentals of genetics

Created by Adam_Vincent 

Upgrade to
remove ads

genetics

the science of hereditary material and how traits are passed on from parent to offspring

heredity

the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring

trait

a genetically determined varient of a characteristic

pollination

the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures (anthers) to the tips of female reproductive structures (pistal) of a flower

self pollination

the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to the stigma of the same flower

cross pollination

a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transfered to the stigma of another

true breeding

describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait and thus always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait

p generation

parental generation, the first 2 individuals that mate in a genetic cross

F1 generation

the first generation of offspring, offspring of P

F2 generation

the second generation of offspring, offspring of F!

dominant

describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes

recessive

describes a trait or allele that is expressed only when 2 ressesive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited

law of segregation

law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes seperate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete

law of independent assortment

law that states that genes seperate independently of one another in meiosis

molecular genetics

the study of the structures of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes

allele

one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic

genotype

the entire genetic makeup of an organism

phenotype

an organisms appearence or other detectable characteristic that results from the organisms genotype and the environment

homozygous

describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes

heterozygous

describes an individual that has 2 different alleles for a trait

probability

the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance or the envent

monohybrid cross

a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

punnet square

a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross

genotypic ratio

the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring

phenotipic ratio

the ratio of phenotypes produced by a cross

testcross

the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

complete dominance

a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another

incomplete dominance

a condition in which a trait is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parents. the dominat allele is not expressed fully

codominance

a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed

dihybrid cross

a cross between individuals that have the different alleles for the same gene

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set