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chromatin

structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins

chromosome

threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that carries heredity information encoded in genes

cytoplasm

jellylike substance found within the cell membrane composed of proteins, salts, water, dissolved gases, and nutrients,

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

molecule that holds genetic information capable of replicating and producing an exact copy whenever the cell divides

diaphram

muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity

metabolism

sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism

organelle

cellular structure that provides a specialized function, such as the nucleus (reproduction), ribosomes (protein synthesis), Golgi apparatus (removal of material from the cell), and lysosomes (digestion)

pathology

study of the nature of diseases, their causes, development, and consequences

peristalsis

Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the walls of a tubular organ to propel its contents onward

Level of organization in the body from least to most complex:

Cell, tissue, organ, system, organism

cytology

study of the body at the cellular level

tissues

groups of cells that perform a specialized activity

histology

study of tissues

Epithelial tissues

covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, forms tubes and ducts, provides the secreting portions of glands and makes up the epidermis of the skin

Connective tissue

supports and connects other tissues and organs. Made up of diverse cell types, including fibroblasts, fat cells and blood

Muscle tissues

provides the contractile tissue of the body, which is responsible for movement

Nervous tissue

transmits electrical impulses as it relays information throughout the entire body

Organism

complete living existence capable of independent existence

anatomical position

body posture used to locate anatomical parts in relation to each other (body is erect and eyes are looking forward. upper limbs hang to the sides, with palms facing forward, lower limbs parallel, with toes pointing straight ahead)

plane

an imaginary flat surface used by anatomists to identify the different sections of the body

mid-sagittal (median)

commonly used plant to identify section of the body
right and left halves

coronal (frontal)

commonly used plant to identify section of the body
anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) aspects

transverse (horizontal)

commonly used plant to identify section of the body
superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects

The body has two major cavities:

1. Dorsal (posterior): cranial & spinal cavaties
2. Ventral (anterior): thoracic & abdominopelvic cavaties

Dorsal cavity -Cranial

Brain

Dorsal Cavity -Spinal

Spinal cord

Ventral Cavity - Thoracic

Heart, lungs and associated structures

Ventral Cavity - Abdominopelvic

Digestive, excretory, and reproductive organs and structures

Two anatomical methods used to divide the Abdominopelvic area:

1. Quadrants
2. Regions

Quadrants

four divisions of the lower torso used to show topographical location (used to locate sites for descriptive and diagnostic purposes)

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

Right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

Left lobe of liver, stomach, spleen, part of pancreas, part of small and large intestines

Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

Part of small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right fallopian tube, right ureter

Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

Part of small and large intestines, left ovary, left fallopian tube, left ureter

Spine is divided into sections:

cervical (neck); thoracic (chest; lumber (loin); sacral (lower back); coccyx (tailbone)

superior to

above

Left hypochondriac

Upper left region beneath the ribs

Epigastric

Region above the stomach

Right hypochondriac

Upper right region beneath the ribs

Left lumbar

Left middle lateral region

Umbilical

Region of the naval

Right lumbar

Right middle lateral region

Left inguinal (iliac)

Left lower lateral region

Hypogastric

Lower middle region beneath the navel

Right inguinal (iliac)

Right lower lateral region

Abduction

movement away from the midsagittal (median) plane of the body of one of its parts

Adduction

movement toward the midsagittal (median) plane of the body

Medial

pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

Lateral

Pertaining to a side

Superior (cephalad)

toward the head or upper portion of a structure

Inferior (caudal)

away from the heard, or toward the tail or lower part of a structure

Proximal

nearer to the center (trunk of he body) or to the point of attachment to the body

Distal

Further away from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body

Anterior (ventral)

Front of the body

Posterior (dorsal)

Back of the body

Parietal

Pertaining to the outer wall of the body cavity

Visceral

Pertaining to the viscera, or internal organs, especially the abdominal organs

Prone

Lying on the abdomen, face down

Supine

Lying horizontally on the back, face up

Inversion

Turning inward or inside out

Eversion

Turning outward

Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

Plantar

Pertaining to the sole of the foot

Superficial

Toward the surface of the body (external)

Deep

Away from the surface of the body (internal)

cyt/o

cell - cytologist - specialist in study of cells

hist/o

tissue - histology - study of tissues

-logist

specialist in the study of

-logy

study of

kary/o

nucleus

nucle/o

nucleus

karyolysis

destruction of the nucleus

-lysis

separation, destruction, loosening

nuclear

pertaining to the nucleus

-ar

pertaining to

anter/o

anterior , front

caud/o

tail

caudad

toward the tail

-ad

toward

crani/o

cranium (skull)

cranial

pertaining to the cranium

-al

pertaining to

dist/o

far, farthest

distal

pertaining to the farthest (point of attachment)

dors/o

back (of body)

dorsal

pertaining to the bak (of the bod)

infer/o

lower, below

inferior

pertaining to a lower (structure or surface)

later/o

side, to one side

lateral

pertaining to a side

medi/o

middle

medi/ad

toward the middle

poster/o

back (of body) behind posterior

posterior

pertaining to the back (of the body)

-ior

pertaining to

proxim/o

near, nearest

proximal

pertaining to the nearest (point of attachment)

ventr/o

belly, belly side

ventral

pertaining to the belly side

abdomin/o

abdomen - abdominal - pertaining to the abdomen

cervic/o

neck, cervix uteri (neck of the uterus)

cervical

pertaining to the neck

crani/o

cranium (skull), cranial, pertaining to the cranium

gastr/o

stomach, hypogastric - pertaining to (the area) below the stomach

ili/o

ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bond); ili/a - pertaining to the ilium

inguin/o

groin; inguinal - pertaining to the groin

lumb/o

loins (lower back); lumbar - pertaining to the loins (lower back)

pelv/i or pelv/o

pelvis; pelvimeter - instrument

spin/o

spine; spinal-pertaining to the spine

thorac/o

chest; thoracic - pertaining to the chest

umbilic/o

umbilicus, naval; umbilical - pertaining to thenaval

albin/o

white; albinism- condition of whiteness

leuk/o

white; leukocyte - white blood cell

chlor/o

green; chloropira - green vision (disorder in which viewed objects appear green. Associated with a toxic reaction to digitalis)

chrom/o

color; heterochromic-pertaining to different colors (iris or sections of the iris of the eyes-person with heterochromia may have one brown iris and one blue iris)

cirrh/o

yellow; cirrhosis-abnormal yellowing

-osis

abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)

jaund/o

yellow -jaundice-yellowing (caused by an abnormal increase of bilirubin - yellow compound when red blood cells are destroyed - in the blooed)

xanth/o

yellow-xanthocyte-yellow cell

-cyte

cell

cyan/o

blye-cyanotic-pertaining to blueness (cyanosis is associated with a lack of oxygen in the blood)

erythr/o

red-erythrocyte-red blood cell

melan/o

black - melanoma - black tumor (melanoma is a malignancy that arises from melanocytes)

poli/o

gray; gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)-poliomyeltitis-inflammationof the gray matter of the spinal cord

myel

bone marrow; spinal cord

acr/o

extremity; acrocyanosis-abnormal condition in which the extremities are blue

eti/o

cause; etiology-study of the causes of disease

idi/o

unknown, peculiar; idiopathic-pertaining to an unknown cause of a disease

morph/o

form, shape, structure; morphology - study of form, shape or structure

path/o

disease; pathologist-specialist in the study of disease (study tissues, cells and body fluids for evidence of disease)

radi/o

radiation, x-ray, radius, lower arm bone on thumb side; radiologist- specialist in the study of radiation

somat/o

body; somatic-pertaining to the body

son/o

sound; sonography=process of recording sound, aka ultrasonography

xer/o

dry; xerosis-abnormal condition of dryness (dryness of the skin, mucous membranes or conjunctiva)

-genesis

forming, producing, origin

pathogenesis

origin of disease

=gnosis

knowing

prognosis

knowing before (prediction of the course and end of a disease and the estimated change of recovery)

-gram

record, writing

arteriogram

record of an artery (an x-ray film of an artery taken after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium)

-metry

act of measuring

ventriculometry

act of measuring the ventricles
(ventricles (heart or brain)

-pathy

disease

gastropathy

disease of the stomach

ab-

from, away from
abduction: act of brining away from (midline of the body)

-duction

act of leading, brining, conducting

adhesion

abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normal separated (may be the result of surgery)

analyte

substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods (in a glucose tolerance test, glucose is the analyte)

contrast medium

substance injected in the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films

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