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The Cold War

In 1945, Joseph Stalin's vision of a postwar world in which great powers would control strategic areas of interest
was largely shared by
A. Charles De Gaulle.
B. Winston Churchill.
C. Franklin Roosevelt.
D. Mao Zedong.
E. Harry Truman.

B. Winston Churchill.

In late 1943, at the Teheran Conference
A. Franklin Roosevelt knew Joseph Stalin urgently needed American aid in fighting Germany.
B. Winston Churchill agreed to enter the war in the Pacific as soon as Germany was defeated.
C. Franklin Roosevelt urged Joseph Stalin to postpone his westward offensive.
D. it was agreed that Poland should be put under Soviet control after the war.
E. Franklin Roosevelt promised an Anglo-American second front within six months.

E. Franklin Roosevelt promised an Anglo-American second front within six months.

In designing the structure of the new United Nations, planners called for
A. each nation on the Security Council to have veto power over the others.
B. a General Assembly in which select nations would have voting rights.
C. the president of the UN to be selected from one of the five major powers.
D. membership to be limited to one hundred nations.
E. Germany and Japan to be added to the Security Council after twenty-five years.

A. each nation on the Security Council to have veto power over the others.

At the conclusion of the Yalta Conference in 1945, basic disagreements remained on
A. the government of Poland.
B. the unification of Germany.
C. war reparations to the Soviet Union.
D. both the government of Poland and the unification of Germany.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

Between the Yalta Conference and his death, President Franklin Roosevelt
A. saw no evidence that Stalin would not live up to his promises at Yalta.
B. concluded that diplomacy would not settle American differences with Stalin.
C. began planning for a military confrontation against the Soviet Union.
D. frequently conveyed his fears about Russia to Vice-President Harry Truman.
E. became increasingly concerned that Stalin was not going to fulfill conference agreements.

E. became increasingly concerned that Stalin was not going to fulfill conference agreements.

President Harry Truman initially decided to "get tough" with the Soviet Union
A. following the end of the war in the Pacific.
B. once the United States had successfully used the atomic bomb.
C. at the Potsdam Conference.
D. after his first few days in office.
E. after it became clear Stalin was supporting communist forces in China.

D. after his first few days in office.

By 1945, the Chinese government of Chiang Kai-shek had
A. grown antagonistic toward the United States.
B. designs on taking over conquered Japan.
C. little popular support.
D. drifted toward communism.
E. willingly ceded authority to Mao Zedong.

C. little popular support.

Beginning in 1947, the United States' policy of "containment" was
A. the basis for its foreign policy for more than forty years.
B. first applied in Poland.
C. an extension of the Atlantic Charter.
D. both the basis for its foreign policy for more than forty years, and an extension of the Atlantic Charter.
E. None of these answers is correct.

A. the basis for its foreign policy for more than forty years.

In 1947, the United States was motivated to develop the Marshall Plan due to
A. a humanitarian concern for European people.
B. a desire to contain communism in Europe.
C. a desire to create strong European markets for American goods.
D. both a humanitarian concern for European people, and a desire to create strong European markets for American
goods.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

The National Security Act of 1947 created
A. the National Security Council.
B. the Central Intelligence Agency.
C. the Department of Defense.
D. both the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

In 1948, President Harry Truman responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by
A. sending American paratroopers into West Berlin.
B. airlifting supplies to West Berlin.
C. threatening war with the Soviet Union.
D. encouraging the United Nations to pass economic sanctions.
E. creating a blockade of East Berlin.

B. airlifting supplies to West Berlin.

In 1948, President Harry Truman responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by
A. sending American paratroopers into West Berlin.
B. airlifting supplies to West Berlin.
C. threatening war with the Soviet Union.
D. encouraging the United Nations to pass economic sanctions.
E. creating a blockade of East Berlin.

A. sending American paratroopers into West Berlin.

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
A. was limited to servicemen who had been wounded in combat.
B. mainly provided counseling for emotionally troubled veterans.
C. helped to reduce government spending.
D. gave housing and education subsidies to veterans.
E. explicitly discriminated against African Americans.

D. gave housing and education subsidies to veterans.

Following World War II, the great majority of working American women
A. kept the same jobs they had during the war.
B. voluntarily left the labor force.
C. moved to jobs outside the service sector.
D. found themselves excluded from nearly all employment.
E. wanted to keep working.

E. wanted to keep working.

The 1946 elections
A. revealed growing public support for President Harry Truman's domestic agenda.
B. saw the Democrats retain control of the House, but lose the Senate.
C. saw Republicans win control of both houses of Congress.
D. saw President Truman chastise Republican critics with the slogan "Had Enough?"
E. saw Republicans argue that Truman aimed to roll back the New Deal.

C. saw Republicans win control of both houses of Congress.

President Harry Truman responded to the 1946 election results by
A. deciding not to run for office in 1948.
B. becoming more conservative.
C. proposing a major civil rights bill.
D. abandoning his Fair Deal.
E. calling his opponents "soft on Communism."

C. proposing a major civil rights bill.

In the 1948 presidential election,
A. most people believed Harry Truman would win.
B. President Truman refrained from attacking Republicans for fear of alienating voters.
C. the Progressive and Dixiecrat candidates combined for 20% of the popular vote.
D. both were the case: most people believed Harry Truman would win, and President Truman refrained from
attacking Republicans for fear of alienating voters.
E. None of these answers is correct.

E. None of these answers is correct.

In 1949, the Truman administration made progress in civil rights by
A. making lynching a federal crime.
B. abolishing the poll tax.
C. ordering an end to discrimination in the hiring of government employees.
D. establishing the Fair Employment Practices Commission.
E. ordering the desegregation of public transportation.

C. ordering an end to discrimination in the hiring of government employees.

A 1948 public opinion poll revealed that a majority of Americans believed atomic power would
A. cause significant harm to the environment if used as an energy source.
B. likely result in the destruction of much of human civilization in the next few decades.
C. be used in war within the next five years.
D. have few practical applications in the foreseeable future.
E. in the long run, do more good than harm.

E. in the long run, do more good than harm.

All of the following statements regarding Korea are true EXCEPT
A. in 1945, both the United States and the Soviet Union had troops in Korea.
B. the Soviet Union established a communist government in the north.
C. the United States left Korea in 1946.
D. the Soviet Union left Korea in 1949.
E. the country was divided along the 38th parallel.

C. the United States left Korea in 1946.

In 1950, the Truman administration responded to the onset of fighting in Korea by
A. declaring war on North Korea.
B. calling on the United Nations to intervene.
C. warning China not to intervene.
D. threatening the use of atomic weapons.
E. telling South Korea to stand down.

B. calling on the United Nations to intervene.

In 1951, President Harry Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur of command because
A. MacArthur publicly stated that an invasion of China would be a military disaster.
B. MacArthur publicly criticized President Truman's policy in Korea.
C. MacArthur refused to support Truman's plan to use atomic weapons in Korea.
D. All these answers are correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.

B. MacArthur publicly criticized President Truman's policy in Korea.

During the Korean War, the Truman administration faced major strikes in the industries of
A. rail and steel.
B. steel and textiles.
C. textiles and coal.
D. coal and rail.
E. rail and textiles.

A. rail and steel.

In 1947, the first target of the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was
A. labor unions.
B. the Democratic Party.
C. the State Department.
D. the American Communist Party.
E. the movie industry.

E. the movie industry.

Of the following, the HUAC investigation of Alger Hiss primarily helped the political career of
A. Richard Nixon.
B. Joseph McCarthy.
C. John Kennedy.
D. Ronald Reagan.
E. Lyndon B. Johnson.

A. Richard Nixon.

The McCarran Internal Security Act
A. outlawed all communist organizations in the United States.
B. created the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
C. was strongly supported by the Truman administration.
D. stripped American citizenship from all known communists.
E. required communist organizations to register with the government.

E. required communist organizations to register with the government.

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were
A. not members of the Communist Party.
B. accused of passing American secrets to its enemies.
C. convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
D. All these answers are correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.

B. accused of passing American secrets to its enemies.

Joseph McCarthy burst to national prominence by charging that there were known communists in the
A. State Department.
B. Defense Department.
C. Truman Cabinet.
D. Central Intelligence Agency.
E. United States Senate.

A. State Department.

The election of 1952 saw
A. a contest between two war heroes, neither of whom had ever held elective office.
B. President Harry Truman run for another term.
C. Richard Nixon forced to step down from the Republican ticket.
D. Joseph McCarthy run for president.
E. television play a significant role in the campaign.

E. television play a significant role in the campaign.

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