ch 22

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Which of the following is true of both lymphatic capillaries and blood capillaries?
ANSWER:
Both types are composed of endothelium.
Both types allow the free entry of viruses and proteins.
Both types form continuous tubes.
Both types have a diameter of approximately 8 micrometers.

a

Which of these is not a property of lymphatic capillaries?
ANSWER:
They have irregular profiles.
Their endothelial cells overlap.
They lack basement membrane.
They are smaller than blood capillaries.

d

Which of these statements about lymphocytes is false?
ANSWER:
They occur as B, T, and NK types.
They mostly occur in lymphoid tissues.
They bind antigens.
They are phagocytic.

d

The primary function of the lymphatic system is
ANSWER:
circulation of nutrients.
the production and distribution of plasma proteins.
circulation of dissolved gases.
the transport of hormones.
defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.

d

All of the following are true of the thymus gland, except that it
ANSWER:
activates B cells.
involutes after puberty.
reaches its greatest relative size during the second year of life.
produces T cells.
lies in the anterior mediastinum.

a

In general, lymphocytes
ANSWER:
spend most of their time in lymphatic tissue.
have relatively short life spans.
are produced and mature only in red bone marrow.
spend most of their time circulating in the blood.
have two nuclei.

a

Lymphocytes
ANSWER:
decrease in number during infection.
respond to antigens.
destroy red blood cells.
are primarily found in red bone marrow.
are actively phagocytic.

b

Lymphocytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs?
ANSWER:
spleen
tonsils
lymph nodes
thymus
All of the answers are correc

e

Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the
ANSWER:
thymus.
liver.
bone marrow.
spleen.
kidneys.

c

Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as
ANSWER:
white pulp.
Peyer patches.
adenoids.
lymph nodes.
red pulp.

a

Lymphatic organs differ from lymphatic tissues in what way?
ANSWER:
They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphatic tissues can.
They are found in the digestive tract and lymphatic tissues are found in the thorax.
They contain T lymphocytes and lymphatic tissues do not.
They occur throughout the body except in the head.
They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not.

e

Which of these is not one of the nonspecific defenses?
ANSWER:
interferons
immunoglobulins
histamine
neutrophils

b

Which of these defense cells are not phagocytic?
ANSWER:
lymphocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
macrophages

a

Innate defenses include
ANSWER:
phagocytic cells.
physical barriers.
interferons.
inflammation.
All of the answers are correct.

e

Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include
ANSWER:
mucus.
epithelia.
epidermal layers.
sebaceous glands.
All of the answers are correct

e

The body's innate defenses include all of the following, except
ANSWER:
antibodies.
complement.
interferon.
the skin.
inflammation.

a

Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except
ANSWER:
epithelium.
complement.
body hair.
basement membranes.
secretions.

b

A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John
ANSWER:
has swollen lymph nodes.
is producing T lymphocytes.
has a sore throat.
is running a fever.
is feeling achy.

d

Cytotoxic T cells can attack target cells with which of these chemical weapons?
ANSWER:
secrete free radicals
secrete mutant proteins
secrete a cytokine that triggers apoptosis
secrete strong acid
secrete organic solvent

c

Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by
ANSWER:
fever.
adaptive immunity.
innate immunity.
immunological surveillance.
skin defenses.

b

Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
ANSWER:
natural passive
passive
innate
auto
naturally acquired active

e

During a primary humoral response to antigens all of the following occur, except
ANSWER:
B cells may undergo several rounds of mitosis before producing plasma cells and memory cells.
antibody levels do not peak until 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.
B cells may differentiate into plasma cells immediately.
neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substances.
the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are of the IgM type.

d

All of the following are true of the secondary response of humoral immunity, except that it
ANSWER:
results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary response.
results in much quicker rise in antibody titers.
produces more effective antibodies.
weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or two.
depends on memory B cells.

d

All of the following are true of the primary response of humoral immunity, except that
ANSWER:
circulating antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise.
it requires B cell differentiation into plasma cells.
it depends on antigen triggering the appropriate B cell.
it is delayed by the memory cell stage.
it peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.

d

Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?
Hint A.1
MHC proteins are "self-proteins" that cradle antigens for presentation to T cells.
ANSWER:
antigen-presenting cells
all nucleated cells

a

Which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens?
Hint B.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
class II MHC proteins
class I MHC proteins

a

Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?
ANSWER:
CD8
CD4

a

Which of the following types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
macrophages
dendritic cells
all nucleated cells
B cells

c

Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?
Hint E.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
CD6 cells
CD4 cells
CD8 cells

c

Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true?
ANSWER:
are found on all nucleated cells
fall into two major classes
allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells
function in antigen presentation
bind complement

e

Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?
ANSWER:
lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
red blood cells
all body cells with a nucleus
granulocytes and microphages
liver cells and macrophages in the spleen

A

Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only
ANSWER:
during infections.
when cytotoxic T cells are inhibited.
when NK cells are activated.
in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
when plasma cells are releasing antibodies.

D

T cells and B cells can be activated only by
ANSWER:
disease-causing agents.
exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.
pathogens.
interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors.
cells infected with viruses, bacteria, or cancer cells.

b

The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their
ANSWER:
antigen specificity.
asymmetry.
heavy-chain constant segments.
light-chain variable segments.
reactivity.

c

Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are
ANSWER:
IgG.
IgM.
IgD.
IgA.
IgE.

e

The binding of an antibody to an antigen can result in
ANSWER:
complement activation and opsonization.
inflammation.
neutralization of the antigen.
agglutination or precipitation.
All of the answers are correct.

b

mmunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are
ANSWER:
IgM.
IgG.
IgE.
IgA.
IgD

d

Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are
ANSWER:
IgM.
IgE.
IgG.
IgA.
IgD.

a

Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are
ANSWER:
IgE.
IgD.
IgG.
IgA.
IgM.

b

B cells are primarily activated by the activities of
ANSWER:
antibodies.
antigens.
helper T cells.
plasma cells.
macrophages.

c

The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to
ANSWER:
process antigens.
display antigen fragments.
bind antigens to glycoproteins.
activate T cells.
All of the answers are correct.

e

During a primary immune response, the
ANSWER:
IgG titer is initially higher than the IgM titer.
IgM titer is initially higher than the IgG titer.
IgM titer and the IgG titer rise in parallel.

b

Newborns gain their immunity initially from
ANSWER:
contact with siblings.
breast milk.
antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.
contact with viruses and bacteria.
early immunizations.

c

The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are
ANSWER:
IgA.
IgE.
IgD.
IgG.
IgM.

d

Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are
ANSWER:
the result of stress.
allergies.
autoimmune diseases.
immunodeficiency diseases.
signs of a weak system

b

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