Chapter 8 Human Development

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The strange situation test

A method created by Mary Ainsworth to study differences in children's attachment

Mostly based on case-study research, and summing up the stages with single concepts are criticisms of?

Erikson's socioemotional development theory

A child of 1.5 to 3 years is in what stage of Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development?

Autonomy versus shame and doubt

Authoritarian Parenting

A restrictive punitive style in which the parents exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to value hard work and effort

What characterizes the Industy vs. Inferiority stage of Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development?

Involves learning and developing new skills

Infant attachment

The initial important connection to a caregiver that provides foundation for later development

Whether or not the theory adequately accounts for cultural variations, whether or not attachment is actually necessary for a healthy life, and whether or not theory adequately accounts for cultural variations are all criticisms of?

Attachment theory

Assimilation

When individuals incorporate new information into existing schema

What theorist is most associated with cognitive development in children?

Piaget

Temperament

An individual's behavioral style and characteristic way of responding

How does the term "gender" differ from the term "sex"?

Gender includes sex (biological aspect) and social and psychological aspects of being male or female

Cognitive Development

characterized by improved capacity to process information and understand the world due to advancing age and experience

What are examples of schemas?

A framework used for organizing information and a concept that exists at a given moment in a person's mind

According to Piaget, what stage is predominant from 12 years to adulthood?

The formal operational stage

What is one criticism of the Formal Operational Stage?

Many adolescents and adults do not reason as logically as Piaget proposed

Permissive Parenting

A parenting style characterized by the placement of few limits on the child's behavior.

Authoritative Parenting

A parenting syle that encourages the child to be independent but still palces limits and controls on behavior

Developmental Psychology

studies the the patterns of physical, cognitive, and social growth that occur throughout the lifespan

Changes in motor skills, Maturation, and hormonal changes are part of development in?

Biological Processes

Development

The pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities that occur throughout the course of life

Changes in a person's intelligence and changes in a person's thinking are development in?

Cognitive Processes

Define Hypothetical Deductive Reasoning

An individual's ability to develop hypotheses, or best hunches, to solve a problem

According to Carol Gilligan, what are the fundamental differences in the way men and women view morality?

Justice is more salient for men than for women,
Compassion is more salient for women than for men

What is a major criticism of Kohlberg's theory?

that moral reasoning does not necessarily mean moral behavior.

Habituation

the decrease in exposure to a stimulus after repeated exposure to the same stimulus

Three year old Hank believes his father knows what Hank is thinking. Kaylee is reading a picture book and assumes that her mother who is across the room can see the pictures. These two situations are examples of?

"Egocentric thought" in Piaget's preoperational stage

3 year old John gives personal opinions and guesses, and does not rely on logical reasoning when asked a question. This situation is an example of?

"Intuitive thought" in Piaget's preoperational stage

Define Resilience

A person's ability to recover from or adapt to difficult times

_________ development consists of changes with age in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding the principles and values that guide what people should do

Moral

Eye color, and family history of hair loss are examples of?

"Nature" Influences

A person's genotyope gives him the potential to be tall, but this potential interacts with the environment to produce a _______

Phenotype

Alcohol, viruses, and nicotine are examples of _________ because they cause birth defects to the fetus

Teratogens

Below average intelligence, heart defects, and flattened noses and wide-spaced eyes are all examples of?

Fetal Alcholol Syndrome (FAS)

Dr. Karloff strongly believes that, due to research, that women were forced to adapt to roles with less power and less status in society, and they showed more cooperative and less dominant profiles than men. Her belief is an example of?

The Social Role Perspective

Gender role

An expectation of how a male or female should think, act and feel

Prosocial Behavior

Behavior that is intended to benefit other people

It is an interactive role, and it is an active role are statements that apply to a...?

Person's developmental role in the world

Imagining a future occupation, being able to speak and understanding words and problem solving are all examples of?

Cognitive Development

What are characteristics of the Concrete Operational Stage, according to Piaget?

It involves logical reasoning, and abstract thinking is not yet developed

Infancy is the developmental period .....

from birth until two years of age

The preoperational stage occurs between the ages of?

2 years and 7 years

The concrete operational stage occurs between the ages of?

7 years and 11 years

Intuitive Thought

When someone just "knows" something

Define Reflex

Genetically wired abilities crucial for survival

Elliott is a two year old toddler. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, this means that he is in the preoperational stage. Which of the following is true of this stage?

A child's thinking is limited because it is egocentric, Children have difficulty in this stage understanding the concept of reversible operations

How is operational thought tested in the concrete operational stage according to Piaget's theory?

The principle of reversibility

What process (thing) is dominant of individuals in the Sensorimotor Stage?

Object Permanence

A concept that exists at a given moment in a person's mind, and A framework used for organizing information are both examples of?

Schemas

Accommodation

An individual's adjustment of his or her schema to new information

Ainsworth -- "Strange Situation" test, Secure Infant

Happy to see the mother when she returns

Ainsworth--"Strange Situation" test, Insecure Infant

Raged at the mother when she returns

What developments are typical of Erikson's initiative-versus-guilt stage?

Children's social worlds widen, Conscience develops

Lateralization

The specialization of function in one hemisphere of the brain or the other.

A child that has a "slow-to-warm-up" temperament displays what behaviors?

Low activity level, low intensity of mood, displays minimal adaptibility

According to Erikson, at what age is the trust-versus-mistrust stage predominant?

Birth to 1.5 years

During what period of life is the identity vs. role-confusion stage predominant?

Adolescence

What statements are correct regarding Erikson's trust-versus-mistrust stage?

It occurs during the 1.5 years of life, the outcome depends on whether the infant's caretaker meets its needs

At what age is the initiative vs. guilt stage predominant?

3 to 5 years

What represents what Piaget meant by "operations"?

Mental representations that are "reversible"

What is the earliest stage of prenatal development at which a rudimentary heart beat be identified?

Embryo

A single cell with 23 chromosomes from the mother 23 chromosomes from the father, and it is a fertilized egg describes what?

Zygote

As an infant walks, talks, runs, smiles, etc. his or her brain is changing dramatically. The dendrites of the neurons branch out and the neruons become more ________

interconnnected

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