Biology - Chapter 11A - The Kingdom Protista

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For Biology students at Christian Life School


Able to move from place to place.

Phylum Sarcodina Characteristics

*Characterized by a lack of a standard body shape.
*May form extensions that function as false feet or pseudopods.
*They live in a variety of habitats including fresh water, the sea floor, and the human mouth and intestines.

Be able to label these parts of an amoeba

Contractile vacuole
Food vacuole

Amoeba proteus

The most common amoeba.


In an amoeba, it is the cytoplasm found just inside the plasma membrane.


This type of cytoplasm is found all over the interior of an amoeba.

Contractile vacuole

Collects and eliminates water in most protists.

Ameboid movement

When all of the endoplasm from a protist moves to one area of the plasma membrane forming a pseudopod, and the rest of the organism then flows along with it.


This is the control center for metabolic functions in an amoeba.


This is what protists use to respond to their environment.

Phylum Ciliophora Characteristics

*All organisms in this phylum contain cilia.
*The organisms in this phylum live in stagnant lakes & ponds.


The most common example of a ciliate.

Be able to label these parts of a paramecium

Contractile vacuole
Food vacuole
Oral groove
Anal pore


Firm, flexible covering of a paramecium that helps it maintain its slipper shape.


In a paramecium, this contains many copies of the genetic information and helps in day to day activities.


In a paramecium, this helps to exchange genetic information during conjugation.

Food pathway for a paramecium

Cilia that line the oral groove sweep food into a short tube called the gullet. At the end of the gullet a large bulge forms forming a food vacuole.

2 ways paramecium reproduce

Binary fission and conjugation


Stiff filaments that are discharged in response to certain stimuli in a paramecium.

Binary fission

When the micronucleus divides by mitosis, and the macronucleus enlarges and divides in half. The protist elongates and a second gullet forms. A furrow forms across the middle of the protist and it divides in half.


When two protists attach to each other by their oral grooves, exchange nuclear material, and then divides into 4 organisms.

Phylum Sporozoa Characteristics

*As adults, organisms in this phylum do not have any structures for movement.
*This phylum forms spores at some point during their life cycle.


A cell with a hard, protective covering that forms during times of extreme or harsh conditions.


The most commonly known Sporozoan.

How does malaria get passed on from person to person.

The mosquito "bites" a person that has the plasmodium sporozoan in their bloodstream. The plasmodium cells go to the mosquito's salivary glands. Before feeding on the blood of another human, the infected mosquito injects some of its saliva, containing the Plasmodium parasite, into the puncture wound of this new victim. The Plasmodium goes to the human liver cells, reproduces quickly, and then enters the bloodstream causing those cells to burst and fully infect the human.


The name of the illness that the Plasmodium causes.

Phylum Zoomastigina

This phylum uses a flagella to move around.


The zooflagellate that causes African sleeping sickness.

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