Prohibition in the U.S. led to:
a) less corruption in politics
b) the rise of organized crime
c) increased membership in churches
d) a more law-abiding nation
e) increased tax revenues to the state and federal governments
The 1912 presidential election was notable because
a) the Democratic party had split.
b) the fourth-party Socialists had a serious chance to win.
b) personalities were the only issue of the campaign.
d) it gave the voters a clear choice of political and economic philosophies.
e) it was the first time women had the right to vote.
Match each 1912 presidential candidate below with his political party.
A. Woodrow Wilson
B. Theodore Roosevelt
C. William Howard Taft
D. Eugene V. Debs
a)A—3, B—1, C—2, D—4
b)A—4, B—3, C—2, D—l
c)A—2, B—4, C—3, D—l
d)A—1, B—2, C—4, D—3
e)A—1, B—3, C—4, D—2
As a politician, Woodrow Wilson was
a)willing to compromise with his opponents.
b)a showman, like Teddy Roosevelt.
c(unskilled as a public speaker.
d)a man with the common touch.
e)inflexible and stubborn.
The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution permitted Congress to enact
a)a personal income tax.
b)prohibition of alcohol.
c)the direct election of senators.
d)the abolition of child labor.
The first Jewish member of the United States Supreme Court, appointed by Woodrow Wilson was
a)Louis D. Brandeis.
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 guaranteed a substantial measure of public control over the American banking and currency system through the great authority given to
a) the secretary of the treasury.
b) regional Federal Reserve banks.
c) the president of the United States.
d) the presidentially appointed Federal Reserve Board.
e) the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Banking Committee.
The Federal Reserve Act gave the Federal Reserve Board the authority to
a) guarantee individual banking deposits against bank failures.
b) issue paper money and increase or decrease the amount of money in circulation by altering interest rates.
c) collect income taxes directly from employees' paychecks.
d) take the U.S. dollar off the gold standard.
e) close weak banks.
Which term best characterizes Woodrow Wilson's fundamental approach to American foreign policy?
The legal codes that established the system of segregation were
a) overturned by Plessy v. Ferguson.
b) called Jim Crow laws.
c) passed during Reconstruction.
d) found only in the North.
e) undermined by the crop lien system.
The fundamental difference in the philosophies of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois was that
a) Washington believed that African-Americans would have to leave the United States and return to Africa to achieve equality while DuBois believed they would better improve their lives by staying in the United States
b) Washington argued for nonviolent protest, while DuBois lobbied for more militant protest
c) Washington focused on education and economic progress while DuBois emphasized civil rights and black leadership
d) Washington wanted African-Americans to leave the South while DuBois believed they would be better able to improve their lives if they remained in the South
e) Washington focused on civil rights and black leadership, while DuBois emphasized education and economic progress
In the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that
a) segregation was unconstitutional.
b) literacy tests for voting were constitutional.
c) "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional.
d) the Fourteenth Amendment did not apply to African Americans.
e) African Americans could be denied the right to vote.
Alice Paul's contribution to women's history is
a) she was the first woman Cabinet member
b) she founded the National Organization for Women
c) she was instrumental in publicizing birth control
d) she waged a successful campaign to give women the vote
e) she was the first woman labor leader
From 1914 to 1916, America's growing trade with Britain and loss of trade with Germany essentially occurred because
a) American bankers like J.P. Morgan were willing to loan money to Britain but not to Germany.
b) British agents sabotaged American businesses that traded with Germany.
c) more Americans sympathized with Britain than with Germany.
d) the British needed American goods and weapons and the Germans did not.
e) the British navy controlled the Atlantic shipping lanes.
As World War I began in Europe, the alliance system placed Germany and Austria-Hungary as leaders of the _______________, while Russia and France were among the _______________.
a) Central Powers; Holy Alliance
b) Central Powers; Allies
c) Triple Alliance; Central Powers
d) Central Powers; Triple Alliance
e) Allies; Central Powers
With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the great majority of Americans
a) favored entering the war in support of the Allies.
b) earnestly hoped to stay out of the war.
c) favored U.S. mediation of the conflict.
d) wanted to form a military alliance of neutral nations.
e) supported the Central Powers.
German submarines began sinking unarmed and unresisting merchant and passenger ships without warning
a) in retaliation for the British naval blockade of Germany.
b) because international law now allowed this new style of warfare.
c) in a last-ditch effort to win the war.
d) when the United States entered the war.
e) in an effort to keep the United States out of the war.
President Wilson insisted that he would hold _______________ to "strict accountability" for _______________.
a) Britain; the disruption of American trade with the European continent
b) Germany; starting the war
c) Germany; fair treatment of civilians in Belgium
d) Germany; the loss of American ships and lives to submarine warfare
e) Britain; repaying the loans made to it by American bankers
The Zimmermann note involved a proposed secret agreement between
a) Germany and Canada.
b) Germany and Mexico.
c) Mexico and France.
d) Britain and France.
e) Russia and Germany.
President Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany when
a) it appeared that the German army would take Paris.
b) news was received that a revolutionary movement had overthrown the czarist regime in Russia.
c) Germany rejected Wilson's Fourteen Points for peace.
d) the Zimmermann note was intercepted and made public.
e) Germany announced that it would wage unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic.
The United States declared war on Germany
a) after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels.
b) after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany.
c) because Wall Street bankers demanded it.
d) because it appeared that France was about to surrender.
e) in response to demands by American munitions makers.
When the United States entered the war in 1917, most Americans did not believe that
a) the United States would have to ship war materiel to the Allies.
b) the navy was obligated to defend freedom of the seas.
c) it would be necessary to continue making loans to the Allies.
d) mobilization for war should be largely voluntary.
e) it would be necessary to send a large American army to Europe.
Women's participation in the war effort contributed greatly to the fact that they
a) became a large, permanent part of the American workforce.
b) finally received the right to vote.
c) were allowed to join the air force.
d) organized the National Women's party.
e) All of these
President Woodrow Wilson persuaded the American people to enter World War I by
a) insisting that the war would be fought primarily by the navy.
b) convincing the public of the need to make the world safe from the German submarine.
c) demonstrating how American national security would be threatened by a German victory.
d) declaring it a crusade to "make the world safe for democracy."
e) appealing to America's tradition of intervention in Europe.
During World I, civil liberties in America were
a) limited, but no one was actually imprisoned for his or her convictions.
b) protected for everyone except German Americans.
c) violated mostly in the western United States.
d) severely damaged by the pressures for loyalty and conformity.
e) threatened by President Wilson but protected by the courts.
The two groups who suffered most from the violation of civil liberties during World War I were
a) Irish Americans and Japanese Americans.
b) German Americans and social radicals.
c) African Americans and Latinos.
d) Catholics and atheists.
e) labor unions and women's groups.
The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during World War I resulted in
a) better race relations in the South.
b) racial violence in the North.
c) fewer blacks willing to be used as strikebreakers.
d) a new black middle class.
e) All of these
Most of the money raised to finance World War I came from
a) sale of armaments to Britain and France.
b) confiscation of German property.
c) loans from the American public.
e) income taxes.
The conscription law during World War I differed from the Civil War draft especially because it
a) exempted men older that thirty-five and younger than twenty-one from service.
b) contained no provision for conscientious objection.
c) contained no provisions for hiring a substitute or purchasing an exemption.
d) drafted women as well as men.
e) drafted men for the navy and air force as well as the army.
The first nation to use poison gas on the battlefields of World War I was
a) Great Britain.
e) the United States
The Germans gained an immense military advantage in the first months of 1918 because
a) the Austrian army was able to switch from the Italian front to the western front.
b) their brilliant generals Hindenburg and Ludendorff has taken effective control of the German government.
c) the Bolsheviks took Russia out of the war allowing German troops to move to the western front.
d) they had discovered how to use the tank and poison gas effectively.
e) they had seized the two key strategic points of Verdun and Ypres.
The Second Battle of the Marne was significant because it
a) forced the Kaiser to abdicate.
b) marked the beginning of a German withdrawal that was never reversed.
c) was the first time American troops saw action in France.
d) was the first time American troops fought by themselves.
e) saw the first use of combat aircraft.
Woodrow Wilson's ultimate goal at the Paris Peace Conference was to
a) stop the spread of communism.
b) force Germany to pay reparations for the war.
c) establish the League of Nations.
d) blame no one for starting the war.
e) destroy the Austrian and Russian empires.
The Big Three at the Paris Peace Conference at the end of World War I were
a) Churchill, Wilson and Clemenceau
b) Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt
c) Wilson, Lenin and Lloyd George
d) Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Wilson
e) Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Lodge
Senate opponents of the League of Nations, as proposed in the Treaty of Versailles, argued that it
a) failed to provide enough German financial reparations to the United States.
b) violated Wilson's own Fourteen Points.
c) robbed Congress of its war-declaring powers.
d) isolated the United States from postwar world affairs.
e) was not fair enough to oppressed colonial peoples.
In the United States, the most controversial aspect of the Treaty of Versailles was the
a) League of Nations.
b) severe reparations that Germany would have to pay.
c) principle of self-determination for smaller nations in Europe and elsewhere.
d) permanent U.S. alliance with France.
e) provision for trusteeship of former German colonies.
The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1919
a) affected all parts of the world
b) caused more deaths than all of World War I
c) caused public health organizations to struggle with individual freedom versus public safety
d) may have contributed to the war's end as soldiers became ill
e) all of the above
The enormous nationwide steel strike of 1919 resulted in
a) the eight-hour workday.
b) a takeover of the steelworkers' union by American Communists.
c) somewhat higher wages but no recognition of the steel union.
d) general strikes of all workers that essentially shut down Seattle and Pittsburgh.
e) a grievous setback for labor that crippled the union movement for a decade.
The great event that essentially crippled organized labor throughout the 1920s was
a) the federal government's antilabor intervention that broke the 1919 steel strike.
b) the split within the American labor movement between the American Federation of Labor and the Socialists.
c) repeal of the Clayton Act guaranteeing unions the right to organize.
d) the deportation of the most effective labor organizers to the Communist Soviet Union.
e) the Supreme Court's ruling against the union closed shop in the Adkins case.
The highly publicized Scopes Trial in Dayton, Tennessee reflected the growing tensions between:
a) blacks and whites over jobs in rural America
b) Protestants and Catholics in America's "Bible Belt."
c) North and South that continued to exist decades after the Civil War
d) fundamentalism and modernism in the form of controversy over the teaching of evolution in public schools
e) the Jewish and Protestant communities in the South
Which of the following was not among the industries that prospered mightily with widespread use of the automobile?
d) Highway construction
The most tenacious pursuer of radical elements during the red scare of the early 1920s was
a) William Jennings Bryan.
b) F. Scott Fitzgerald.
c) Frederick W. Taylor.
d) A. Mitchell Palmer.
e) J. Edgar Hoover.
In addition to being anti-African American, the new Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s was also opposed to each of the following EXCEPT:
c) birth control
Immigration restrictions of the 1920s were introduced as a result of
a) the desire to halt immigration from Latin America.
b) increased migration of blacks to the North.
c) the nativist belief that northern Europeans were superior to southern and eastern Europeans.
d) a desire to rid the country of the quota system.
e) growing concern about urban overcrowding and crime.
All of the following are true of Marcus Garvey, founder of the United Negro Improvement Association, except he
a) promoted the resettlement of American blacks in Africa.
b) was convicted of mail fraud and deported by the U.S. government.
c) inspired strong feelings of self-confidence and self-reliance among blacks.
d) advocated the idea of developing an elite "talented tenth" to lead African American progress.
e) sponsored black-owned business enterprises.
The immediate outcome of the 1925 Scopes Trial was that
a) biology teacher John Scopes was found guilty of teaching evolution and fined.
b) the jury was deadlocked and unable to reach a verdict.
c) attorney Clarence Darrow got the charges against John Scopes dropped.
d) the state of Tennessee modified its anti-evolution law.
e) the public gained a favorable view of American fundamentalists.
The most influential classical film of the 1910s, D.W. Griffiths' Birth of a Nation, stirred extensive protest by African Americans because
a) African Americans were not allowed to see the film even in northern movie theaters.
b) the film was heavily financed by white racist Hollywood film business owners.
c) the film depicted the black leader Marcus Garvey in an unfavorable light.
d) Griffiths refused to use black actors.
e) the film glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed blacks as corrupt politicians or rapists.
All of the following helped to make the prosperity of the 1920s possible except
a) rapid expansion of capital.
b) increased productivity of workers.
c) advertising and credit buying.
d) government stimulation of the economy.
e) perfection of assembly-line production.
The Lost Generation were
a) disillusioned intellectuals who moved to France to escape the mass culture society of America
b) disillusioned intellectuals who moved to Russia to escape the mass culture society of America
c) disillusioned intellectuals who moved to Spain to escape the mass culture society of America
d) women who refused to follow the "flapper" craze
e) artists who painted works of despair and pain
The Teapot Dome scandal was centered around corrupt deals and bribes involving
a) presidential pardons.
b) European war debts.
c) naval oil reserves.
d) veterans' hospitals.
e) the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Which one of the following members of President Harding's cabinet proved to be incompetent and corrupt?
a) Andrew Mellon
b) Charles Evans Hughes
c) Herbert Hoover
d) Calvin Coolidge
e) Albert Fall
Charles Lindbergh's solo flight across the Atlantic made him an American hero especially because
a) Lindbergh's journey opened closer cultural connections to France.
b) his political principles were widely admired.
c) Americans were impressed by daredevil stunts.
d) his wholesome youthfulness contrasted with the cynicism and debunking of the jazz age.
e) he and his wife Anne Morrow Lindbergh made such an appealing couple.
The American airline industry in the 1920s made most of its early profits through
a) air freight and bulk cargo.
b) subsidies from state and local governments.
c) mail contracts with the federal government.
d) passenger fares.
e) crop dusting and cloud seeding.
b & d
During the 1920s, large numbers of Americans were able to purchase relatively expensive automobiles, appliances, and radios through the relatively new innovation of
a) consumer co-ops.
b) special sales and price reductions at certain times of year.
c) catalog sales.
d) big box discount stores.
e) consumer credit.
The prosperity that developed in the 1920s
a) closed the gap between rich and poor.
b) led to a growing level of savings by the American public.
c) was accompanied by a cloud of consumer debt.
d) enabled labor unions to gain strength.
e) was concentrated primarily in heavy industry.
Among the major figures promoted by mass media image makers and the new sports industry in the 1920s were
a) John L. Sullivan and William Cody.
b) Al Jolson and Margaret Sanger.
c) Mickey Mantle and Rocky Marciano.
d) Henry Ford and Charles Lindbergh
e) Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey.
The "flapper" of the 1920s represented:
a) women who opposed drinking and smoking
b) female conservatives who opposed the equal rights amendment and longed for the old "cult of domesticity."
c) a yearned for independence among American women
d) born-again Christians who replaced the Fundamentalist view of a vengeful God with a more modern, loving god
What contribution did Henry ford make to the automobile industry?
a) the emergence of the luxury car boom to meet the demand of Americans who wanted transportation with comfort and style
b) the moving assembly line and standardized parts that made the automobile available and affordable to the working man
c) the marketing of vehicles in a number of vibrant colors
d) the replacement of unskilled laborers with skilled engineers
e) all of the above
The first talkie motion picture was
a) The Birth of a Nation.
b) The Great Train Robbery.
c) The Jazz Singer.
d) Gone With the Wind.
e) The Wizard of Oz.
Jazz music was developed by
b) American teenagers.
c) American blacks.
d) Caribbean immigrants.
e) Caucasian impresarios.
The outpouring of African American literature and art in New York City in the 1920s was
a) known as the Harlem Renaissance
b) was the brainchild of W.E.B. DuBois
c) replicated in cities across the nation
d) known as the Negro Revival
e) a sign that the U.S. society was ready to support black artists
During Coolidge's presidency, government policy was set largely by the interests and values of
a) farmers and wage earners.
b) racial and ethnic minorities.
c) progressive reformers.
d) the business community.
e) conservative New Englanders.
In the mid-1920s, President Coolidge twice refused to sign legislation proposing to
a) subsidize farm prices.
b) lower taxes.
c) make the United States a member of the World Court.
d) exempt farmers' cooperatives from the antitrust laws.
e) defend the family farm against corporate takeovers.
The 1920 census revealed that, for the first time, most
a) families had fewer than four children.
b) Americans lived in cities.
c) adult women were employed outside the home.
d) Americans lived in the trans-Mississippi West.
e) men worked in manufacturing.
The 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact
a) established a battleship ratio for the leading naval powers.
b) formally ended World War I for the United States, which had refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
c) officially outlawed war as a solution to international rivalry and conflict.
d) set a schedule for German payment of war reparations.
e) condemned Japan for its unprovoked attack on Manchuria.
The outcome of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial was evidence of
a) the high caliber of judges in the early twentieth century
b) Americans' general loathing for thieves and murderers
c) the impartiality of the American judicial system
d) good police work
e) the antiforeign hysteria that was rampant among many Americans
The Fordney-McCumber and Hawley-Smoot Tariff laws had the long-term effect of
a) encouraging the United States to turn more to Asia than to Europe for imports.
b) pressuring the Europeans to lower their own tariff rates in order to retain American trade.
c) shrinking international trade and making it impossible for Europe to repay American war loans.
d) bringing American farmers out of the agricultural depression of the early 1920s.
e) lowering the prices Americans paid for domestic manufactured goods.
One of the major problems facing farmers in the 1920s was
a) the inability to purchase modern farm equipment.
b) the prosecution of cooperatives under antitrust laws.
c) passage of the McNary-Haugen Bill.
e) drought and insects like the boll weevil.
America's European allies argued that they should not have to repay loans that the United States made to them during World War I because
a) Germany was not paying its reparations to them, so they could not afford to pay off the loans.
b) they had paid a much heavier price in lost lives, so it was only fair for the United States to write off the debt.
c) the amount of money involved was not significant.
d) the United States was making so much money from Mexican and Middle Eastern oil that it did not need extra dollars.
e) the United States had owed them about $4 billion before the war.
As a result of America's insistence that its Allies' war debts be repaid in full, the
a) Allies demanded that the United States lower its tariffs.
b) German mark was ruined by drastic deflation
c) Allies borrowed money from Switzerland to repay the loans.
d) French and British demanded enormous reparations payments from Germany.
e) Allies imposed enormously high new taxes on their citizens.
Buying stock on margin meant purchasing
a) inexpensive stock.
b) little-known stock.
c) risky or marginal stock.
d) it on credit with only a small down payment.
e) only a few shares of stock.
President Herbert Hoover believed that the Great Depression could be ended by doing all of the following except
a) providing direct aid to the people.
b) lending federal funds to feed farm livestock.
c) continuing to rely on the American tradition of rugged individualism.
d) keeping faith in the efficiency of the industrial system.
e) directly assisting businesses and banks.
President Hoover's approach to the Great Depression was to
a) leave the economy alone to work itself out of trouble.
b) work for the breakup of business monopolies.
c) encourage the states to stimulate spending.
d) nationalize major industries.
e) offer federal assistance to businesses and banks but not individuals.
The Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 to demand
a) punishment for those who had forced unemployed veterans to leave Washington, D.C.
b) an expanded American army and navy.
c) housing and health care assistance for veterans.
d) the removal of American troops from Nicaragua.
e) immediate full payment of bonus payments promised to World War I veterans.
The major new agency established by the Hoover administration to address the deepening depression was the
a) Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC).
b) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC).
c) Works Progress Administration (WPA).
d) National Recovery Administration (NRA).
e) Securities Exchange Commission (SEC).
In 1932, Franklin Roosevelt campaigned on the promise that as president he would attack the Great Depression by
a) returning to the traditional policies of laissez-faire capitalism.
b) mobilizing America's youth as in wartime.
c) nationalizing all banks and major industries.
d) continuing the policies already undertaken by President Hoover.
e) experimenting with bold new programs for economic and social reform.
When President Roosevelt said, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself" he was referring to
b) his paralysis from polio
c) Hitler's Luftwaffe and aerial superiority
e) the paralyzing terror caused by the Depression
Franklin Roosevelt took America off the gold standard and adopted a managed currency policy designed to
a) reduce the price of gold.
b) restore confidence in banks.
c) shake up the Federal Reserve Board.
d) reduce the amount of money in circulation.
e) stimulate inflation.
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established to
a) provide direct economic assistance to labor.
b) lend money for federal public works projects.
c) outlaw yellow dog (antiunion) contracts.
d) make loans to businesses, banks, and state and local governments.
e) provide money for construction of dams on the Tennessee River.
The Federal Farm Board, created by the Agricultural Marketing Act, lent money to farmers primarily to help them to
a) take land out of production.
b) purchase expensive new farm machinery.
c) organize producers' cooperatives.
d) open new land to cultivation.
e) learn a new and more profitable trade.
The phrase Hundred Days refers to the
a) flood of legislation passed by Congress in the first months of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
b) "lame-duck" period between Franklin Roosevelt's election and his inauguration.
c) worst months of the Great Depression.
d) time it took for Congress to begin acting on President Roosevelt's plans for combating the Great Depression.
e) time that all banks were closed by FDR.
The Works Progress Administration was a major _______________ program of the New Deal; the Public Works Administration was a long-range __________ program; and the Social Security Act was a major _______________ program.
a) recovery; relief; reform
b) reform; recovery; relief
c) relief; reform; recovery
d) relief; recovery; reform
e) reform; relief; recovery
The Glass-Steagall Act
a) empowered President Roosevelt to close all banks temporarily.
b) created the Securities and Exchange Commission to regulate the stock exchange.
c) created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to insure individual bank deposits.
d) took the United States off the gold standard.
e) permitted commercial banks to engage in Wall Street financial dealings.
The most immediate emergency facing Franklin Roosevelt when he became president in March 1933 was
a) runaway inflation.
b) the near collapse of international trade.
c) the growing power of demagogues such as Huey Long and Father Coughlin.
d) the collapse of nearly the entire banking system.
e) riots by unemployed workers and farmers unable to sell their goods.
The fate of most of the Okies and other Dust Bowl migrants who headed west to California was that they
a) still struggled for food, shelter, and work in the San Joaquin Valley.
b) became caught up in radical labor movements.
c) found steady work in the canning industry.
d) formed mutually supportive evangelical religious communes.
e) acquired farms in the San Joaquin Valley.
Immediately after taking office, President Roosevelt responded to the banking crisis by
a) establishing a new Bank of the United States to guarantee deposits.
b) providing major federal loans to the largest and soundest banks.
c) restoring the gold standard to guarantee the soundness of American currency.
d) closing all American banks for a week, while reorganizing them on a sounder basis.
e) reassuring Americans that all their banking deposits were safe.
Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana gained a large national following by promising to
a) make Jews pay for causing the Great Depression.
b) help farmers and workers organize to resist the power of corporations.
c) nationalize all banks and public utility companies.
d) "share our wealth" by raising taxes on the rich and giving every family $5,000.
e) provide the unemployed and elderly a $200-a-month social security payment.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) proposed to solve the farm problem by
a) reducing agricultural production.
b) helping farmers to pay their mortgages.
c) subsidizing American farm exports overseas.
d) encouraging farmers to switch to industrial employment.
e) creating farm cooperatives.
The single most popular New Deal program was probably the
a) Tennessee Valley Authority.
b) Civilian Conservation Corps.
c) National Recovery Administration.
d) Agricultural Adjustment Act.
e) Works Progress Administration.
The Federal Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Commission aimed to
a) prevent interlocking directorates and business pyramiding schemes.
b) halt the sale of stocks on margin (i.e. with borrowed funds).
c) provide full disclosure of information and prevent insider trading and other fraudulent practices.
d) force stockbrokers to register with the federal government.
e) enable the Chicago Board of Trade to compete with the New York Stock Exchange.
In his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, John Maynard Keynes maintained that
a) economics is "bunk"
b) a balanced budget is a prerequisite for stopping inflation
c) the theory of supply and demand can be used to revive production and increase consumption
d) the principle of laissez-faire is essential to a healthy US economy
e) government intervention is needed in bad economic times to pump enough money into the economy to revive production and increase consumption
The Schecter or "sick chicken" case is important because
a) it used the Pure Food and Drug Act to stop the sale of diseased poultry
b) it led to the practice of kosher butchering being outlawed in New York
c) The National Recovery Act (NRA) was upheld and validated other New Deal programs
d) The National Recovery Act (NRA) was declared unconstitutional
e) none of the above
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided all of the following except
a) health care for the poor.
b) economic provisions for the blind
c) support for the physically handicapped.
d) unemployment insurance.
e) old-age pensions.
The American Social Security System, established by the New Deal, differed from most European social welfare systems primarily because it
a) did not initially cover all categories of workers.
b) did not address the issue of single mothers in the home with dependent children.
c) did not permit the Social Security number to be used for identification and security purposes.
d) linked unemployment and disability insurance to old age pensions.
e) was opposed by large sectors of the public.
Probably the most radical New Deal program that provoked widespread charges of creeping socialism was the
a) Social Security Act.
b) Federal Housing Administration.
c) Agricultural Adjustment Act.
d) Tennessee Valley Authority.
e) Indian Reorganization Act.
The most controversial aspect of the Tennessee Valley Authority was its effort to
a) build housing for poor and middle-class citizens in the region.
b) control floods in the Tennessee and Cumblerland valleys.
c) prevent soil erosion throughout the region.
d) provide cheap electrical power in competition with private industry.
e) resettle poor farmers on more productive land.
The National Labor Relations Act, or Wagner Act, created the National Labor Relations Board and:
a) gave workers the right to strike
b) gave the President the authority to settle labor disputes
c) guaranteed housing loans to workers.
d) guaranteed workers a minimum wage
e) guaranteed workers the right to organize and engage in collective bargaining
By 1938, the New Deal
a) turned more toward direct relief than social reform.
b) was prepared to embark on ambitious new initiatives.
c) had plainly failed to achieve its objectives.
d) had won over the majority of business people to its policies.
e) had lost most of its momentum.
President Roosevelt's Court-packing scheme in 1937 reflected his desire to make the Supreme Court
a) more independent of Congress.
b) more respectful of the Constitution's original intent.
c) less burdened with appellate cases.
d) more sympathetic to New Deal programs.
e) more conservative.
One of the lasting effects of the New Deal was that it:
a) cured the Great Depression in the United States
b) ended ethnic discrimination in the American South
c) kept the United States out of World War II
d) prevented the United States from turning to radical alternatives such as fascism
e) none of the above
leader of the National Woman's party, campaigned for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution
Women are not allowed to vote
a fiery feminist; she led the organized birth-control movement, openly championing the use of contraceptives
term for the racial segregation laws imposed in the 1890s
Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I
Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand
was the last German emperor (kaiser) and king of Prussia, whose bellicose policies helped to bring about World War One.
German Submarine, taken from the German "Unterseeboat"
the name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI. It was called the Western Front because it was west of Germany
supervised the nation's industrial production
War Industries Board
In 1919 Attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer's raids against foreigners and communists in America caused by a series of mail bombs.
They were Italian immigrants declaimed as anarchists (people who oppose the government); tried for robbery and murder, sentenced to the electric chair, and this causes public division. The significance of this is that maybe they were found guilty because of racism.
Sacco & Vanzetti
was a black nationalist leader He helped create the "Back to Africa" movement in the United States.
refers to the black cultural development during the 1920s. It showed that blacks had much to offer to American culture and saw the development of "real" American culture
Albert B. Fall leased oil rich land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny, but not until Fall had received a "loan" of $100,000 form Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. The scandal greatly affected the public view of the government in a negative way.
Teapot Dome Scandal
an advanced sociological work that gives us an avenue to understanding the American town. By Robert and Helen Lynd. It is a study of Muncie, Indiana. The idea of the small town survived the reality. Suburbs, residential and industrial, metropolitan areas, and new demographic categories like neighborhood and region, created by the automobile and other forms of transportation, were replacing the older, simpler categories of town and city. The Role of women was changing here too. The whole family structure and the dominance of the home were giving way under the influence in part of the automobile, as the ride in the country replaced the visit in the parlor
was the democratic government which ruled over germany form 1919 to 1933. was germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. it had leaders such as stresseman and hindenburg
Nine black boys were accused of raping two white women near Scottsboro, Alabama. Without given a defense lawyer, 8 of the 9 were convicted to death
established the fdic
Glass-Steagall Banking Act
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
John Maynard Keynes
This 1933 law eased the tight credit situation by permitting the Federal Reserve Bank to accept a wide variety of commercial paper as collateral for loans.
parts of oklahoma, kansas, colorado, new mexico, and texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the great plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from oklahoma to albany, new york.
Sometimes known as the "Magna Carta of Labor", this law guaranteed unions the right of collective bargaining
This New Deal government agency paid subsidies to farmers to reduce the acreage of basic crops which would increase prices and, hopefully, increase farm incomes.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
the "microphone messiah" was a Catholic priest in Michigan and a huge critic of FDR; broadcast his anti-New Deal viewpoints to some 40 million radio fans
Father Charles Coughlin
They were a group of women Suffragist led by Alice Paul. They protested in front of the White House. They protested until the 19th amendment was passed
The night women are abused inside their prison for protesting
"Night of Terror"
founded by Haywood; unskilled labor union; "Wobblies"
in the 1980's Plessy lost the court case because the Constitution says segregation is fine as long as the parts are "equal"
Plessy v Ferguson
British passenger liner that contained American passengers that was sunk by the Germans
telegram from Germany to Mexico
woodrow wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/league of nations.
fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in wwi.
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war. Signed by Lenin
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
"Fighting Quaker", went a little crazy w/ "seeing red"; suspected/jailed 6,000 people, Attorney general
A. Mitchell Palmer
First solo flight across the Atlantic
first motion picture with sound starring Al Jolson
"The Jazz Singer"
The most famous American professional baseball player of 20th century.
George H. Ruth
fords plant where cars were made, very succesful
River Rouge Factory
WWI veterans went to D.C. to try to get their bonuses that they were supposed to get in 1945. They were hungry and poverty stricken.
Buying stocks with little money down and loans from the bank. WHen the market crashed people could not pay back the loans. Banks failed.
Buying on Margin
Criminal in Oklahoma
Pretty Boy Floyd
widely displayed symbol of the NRA
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated
provided employment in fresh-air government camps for about 3 million
uniformed young men.
Parts of the New Deal that went through
created pension and insurance for the old-aged, blind, physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers
created 1933 to help industry, labor, and the unemployed; labor unios allowed to choose representative; symbol "Blue Eagle; declared unconstitutional
Roosevelt's political blunder; tried to put an extra justice on the SC for every justice over 75; max of 15 judges; FDR branded as being dictatorial
Court Packing Plan