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anatomy

studies the human body using imaging and cadavers

physiology

studying how a body part works, function

gross or macroscopic anatomy

the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye

regional anatomy

studying all of the structures in a particular area of the body

systemic anatomy

studying the body system by system

surface anatomy

the study of the internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface

microscopic anaotmy

the study of structures too small to be seen with the naked eye

cytology

the study of cells

histology

the study of tissues

developmental anatomy

the study of structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span

embryology

the study of developmental changes that occur before birth

maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction,growth

What are the 8 survival needs of the body?

nutrients, oxygen water, appropriate temperature, and atmospheric presure

What are the 5 survival needs of the human body?

homeostasis

What is the ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal condition?

negative feedback mechanism

heart rate, blood pressure breathing, and o2 levels, carbon dioxide and mineral levels

positive feedback mechanism

blood clotting, and labor

inferior

away from the head

superior

toward the head

ventral or anterior

toward or at the front of the body

dorsal or posterior

toward or at the back of the body

medial

toward the midline of the body

lateral

away from the midline of the body

intermediate

between a more medial and a more lateral structure

proximal

closer to the origin of the body part

distal

away from the origin of a body part

superficial

toward or at the body surface

deep

away form the body surface

anatomical position

the body is errect with feet slightly apart. palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body.

directional terms

how we explain where one body structure is in relatoin to another

axial part

head, neck, and trunk

appendicular part

limbs

sagittal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.

midsgittal plane

a sagittal plane that divides the body right down the center

parasagittal planes

a plane that divides the body offset from the midline

frontal plane

a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

coronal plane

a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

transverse plane

runs horizontally from right to left, divides the body into superior and inferior parts.

dorsal body cavity

protects the fragile nervous system organs

cranail cavity

encases the brain

spinal cavity

runs within the bony vertebral colum and encloses the delicate spinal cord

oblique sections

cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes

thoracic body cavity

surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest

parietal serosa

membrane lining the cavity walls

visceral serosa

covering the organs

epigastric region

superior to the umbilical region

hypogastric region

inferior to the umbilical region

right and left iliac

lateral to the hypogastric region

right and left hypochondriac region

lateral to the epigastric region

c) chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal

The correct sequence of levels forming the structural hierarchy is
a) organ, organ system, cellular, chemical, tissue, organismal
b)chemical, cellular, tissue, organismal, organ, organ system
c)chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
d) organismal, organ system, organ, tissue, cellular, chemical

a) a cell

The structural and functional unit of life is
a) a cell
b) an organ
c) an organism
d) a molecule

e) all of these

Which of the following is a major functional characteristic of all organisms?
a)movement
b)growth
c) metabolism
d)responsiveness
e)all of these

a)nervous system and d) endocrine system

Two of these organ systems bear the major responsibility for ensuring homestasis of the internal environment. Which two?
a) nervous system
b)digestive system
c)cardiovascular system
d)endocrine system
e)reproductive system

the wrist, the hip bone, the nose, the toes, and the scalp

In a directional term is followed by terms indicating different body structures or locations. In each case, choose the structure or organ that matches the given directional term
a)distal: the elbow/the wrist
b)lateral: the hip bone/ the umbilicus
c) superior: the nose/the chin
d)anterior: the toes the heel
3) superficial: the scalp the skull

neither c or d would be visible

Assume that the body has been sectioned along three planes: 1 a median plane 2 a frontal plane and 3 a transverse plane made at the level of each of the organs listed below. which organs would not be visible in all three cases?
a)urinary bladder
b) brain
c) lungs
d) kidneys
e) small intestines
f) heart

dorsal, ventral, dorsal, ventral

Relate each of the following conditions or statements to either the dorsal body cavity or the ventral body cavity.
a) surrounded by the bony skull and the vertebral column
b) includes the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
c) contains the brain and spinal cord
d) contains the hear, lungs and digestive organs

b) parietal pericardium/ outer surface of heart

Which of the following relationships is incorrect?
a) visceral peritoneum/ outer surface of small intestine
b) parietal pericardium/ outer surface of heart
c) parietal pleura/ wall of thoracic cavity

b)abdominal cavity

Which ventral cavity subdivision has no bony protection?
a) thoracic cavity
b)abdominal cavity
c) pelvic cavity

c) posterior; dorsal

Terms that apply to the backside of the body in the anatomical position include:
a)ventral;anterior
b)back;rear
c)posterior;dorsal
d)medial;lateral

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