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The present shorelines of the world are considered to be ____________.
(a) geologically stable zones separating land and sea
(b) features of great geological antiquity
(c) a dynamic environment affected by both long-term and short-term cycles
(d) that part of the marine environment most resistant to change

(c) a dynamic environment affected by both long-term and short-term cycles

The single most influential agent changing the shore and coast is ____________.
(a) wave action
(b) the tidal range
(c) alternate freezing and thawing of coastal cliffs
(d) prevailing winds

(a) wave action

Oceanographers usually classify coasts by ____________.
(a) the type of sand found on the beach
(b) the physical processes shaping the coasts
(c) the direction the coast faces
(d) the latitude in which the coast reside

(b) the physical processes shaping the coasts

The section of the coast that is exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide is called the
__________.
(a) backshore
(b) foreshore
(c) nearshore
(d) offshore
(e) shorelin

(b) foreshore

The section of the coast that extends from normal high tide level to the highest elevation on land that is
affected by storm waves is called the __________.
(a) backshore
(b) foreshore
(c) nearshore
(d) offshore
(e) shoreline

(a) backshore

The downcoast transport mechanism for beach sand along much of the Pacific coast is called
____________.
(a) the longshore current, a current that moves sand north-to-south along the coast, parallel to
shore, at a great distance away from land
(b) the longshore current, a current that moves sand south-to-north along the coast, parallel to
shore, at a great distance away from land
(c) the longshore current, a current that moves sand south-to-north along the coast, parallel to
shore, close to shore
(d) the longshore current, a current that moves sand north-to-south along the coast, parallel to
shore, close to shore
(e) the longshore current, a current that moves sand on and off the shores, perpendicular to the
coastline, only during large storm waves

(d) the longshore current, a current that moves sand north-to-south along the coast, parallel to
shore, close to shore

Rip currents form when ____________.
(a) longshore currents diverge
(b) water carried into shore by waves flows directly back out
(c) the tide is ebbing
(d) longshore currents converge
(e) the wind is blowing directly offshore

(b) water carried into shore by waves flows directly back out

Eroded material along coastlines is carried from high wave energy areas to __________.
(a) active offshore bars
(b) low wave energy areas
(c) the backshore
(d) the foreshore
(e) the nearshore zone

(b) low wave energy areas

The energy that drives the longshore currents is derived from ____________.
(a) hurricanes and cyclones
(b) major surface currents, such as the Gulf Stream
(c) monthly high tides
(d) wind waves approaching the beach front at an angle

(d) wind waves approaching the beach front at an angle

Sand input to a beach can be caused by ____________.
(a) rip currents
(b) cliff erosion
(c) storm activity
(d) long term swell
(e) both B and D

(e) both B and D

Sand removal from a beach is typically caused by ____________.
(a) rip currents
(b) cliff erosion
(c) storm activity
(d) long term swell
(e) both A and C

(e) both A and C

If the input and output of sand are equal along a shoreline, a/an ____________ condition exists.
(a) imbalanced
(b) inequality
(c) steady state
(d) erosive

(c) steady state

The backshore is found between the normal high tide mark and the coastline.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

The nearshore is equivalent to the intertidal zone.
(a) True
(b) False

(b) False

A summer beach typically has more sediment on it than a winter beach.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

Winter beaches __________.
(a) are narrower than summer beaches due to high-energy waves during the winter
(b) are wider than summer beaches due to low-energy waves during the winter
(c) contain more sediment than summer beaches due to high-energy waves during the winter
(d) contain less sediment than summer beaches due to low-energy waves during the winter
(e) have better smaller offshore bars to sand deposition on the beach during the winter

(a) are narrower than summer beaches due to high-energy waves during the winter

Sediment is supplied to the coastal zone by __________.
(a) coastal erosion
(b) local biological activity
(c) rivers
(d) All of the above are sources of sediment in the coastal zone.
(e) Only answers a and b are sources of sediment in the coastal zone

(d) All of the above are sources of sediment in the coastal zone.

Which of the following will decrease the velocity of the longshore current?
(a) increased beach slope
(b) increased wave frequency
(c) increased wave period
(d) larger waves
(e) faster wind speed

(c) increased wave period

Narrow currents flowing across the surf zone toward the open ocean are called __________.
(a) longshore currents
(b) nearshore currents
(c) rip currents
(d) surf flow
(e) swash

(c) rip currents

The rate of wave erosion along a coastline is determined by all of the following except the
__________.
(a) amount of open ocean exposure
(b) coastal bedrock composition
(c) direction of the longshore current
(d) tidal range
(e) wave height and wave period

(c) direction of the longshore current

You have arrived at a coast rough with sea stacks, cliffs, and small pocket beaches. Your friend asks
you to classify it. You correctly answer that it is a(n) ____________.
(a) erosional coast
(b) depositional coast
(c) isostatic coast
(d) remnant coast
(e) eustatic coast

(a) erosional coast

You and the friend later travel to a broad beach, wide enough to drive on. Again, your friend asks you
to classify it. You correctly answer that it is a(n) ____________.
(a) erosional coast
(b) depositional coast
(c) isostatic coast
(d) remnant coast
(e) eustatic coast

(b) depositional coast

The origin of sea cliffs, sea stacks, sea caves, blowholes, and arches is related to ____________.
(a) longshore currents
(b) high tides
(c) human activities
(d) erosion by waves

(d) erosion by waves

Most of the energy that reshapes beaches comes from ____________.
(a) tidal action
(b) long-term sea level changes
(c) storm surges
(d) breaking waves
(e) rivers

(d) breaking waves

Beaches exposed to high wave energy are composed of ____________.
(a) mud and silt
(b) mud and sand
(c) bare rock
(d) gravel and sand
(e) shale and sand

(c) bare rock

Which of the following is NOT one of the subdivisions of the "beach"?
(a) breaker zone
(b) surf zone
(c) offshore
(d) estuary
(e) backshore

(d) estuary

The highest point on a summer beach profile is ____________.
(a) the berm
(b) the backshore
(c) the foreshore
(d) the low-tide terrace
(e) the shore face

(e) the shore face

The most important role of sand dune vegetation is ____________.
(a) photosynthesis, to provide food for dune grazers
(b) to bring water nearer to the surface via their deep roots
(c) to stabilize the sand of the dunes
(d) to provide microhabitats for small organisms

(c) to stabilize the sand of the dunes

Waves approach shore at an angle, then swing around and come in nearly parallel to shore in the
process of ____________.
(a) diffraction
(b) reflection
(c) distortion
(d) refraction
(e) overwash

(d) refraction

The large waves of late summer modify the shape of sandy beaches. Huge "bites" of beach are
removed from the exposed beach and end up in offshore sand bars. These "bites" are most evident in the form of a very large and high ____________.
(a) berm
(b) shore face, or beach scarp
(c) foreshore
(d) backshore
(e) cusp

(a) berm

The currents that move the sand in the surf zone are caused by ____________.
(a) wind
(b) waves
(c) tides
(d) runoff
(e) tidal bores

(b) waves

Steep, narrow, rocky beaches are usually found in areas of ____________.
(a) summer beach conditions
(b) wave deposition
(c) high wave energy
(d) small inlets and bays

(c) high wave energy

A summer beach is characteristically ____________.
(a) a rocky platform
(b) steep and narrow
(c) covered with boulders and cobbles
(d) broad and covered with sand

(d) broad and covered with sand

Solution, abrasion, and hydraulic action are factors involved in ____________.
(a) wave deposition
(b) moving longshore currents
(c) causing wave refraction
(d) wave erosion

(d) wave erosion

A long-term effect of wave refraction is ____________.
(a) to straighten a coast
(b) to build out points of land
(c) to erode and deepen bays
(d) to remove sand from the beach

(d) to remove sand from the beach

Most of the minerals found in the sand of continental beaches are supplied by ____________.
(a) erosion of local coastal cliffs
(b) currents from the deep ocean floor
(c) glacial processes
(d) rivers and streams

(a) erosion of local coastal cliffs

The velocity of the longshore current will be higher when wave heights are higher.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

Waves will cause much more erosion in an area that has a large tidal range when compared to an area with a small tidal range.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

The longshore current is caused by waves striking the beach at an angle.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

Eustatic changes are variations in sea level that can be measured all over the world ocean.
(a) True
(b) False

(b) False

Oceanographers believe that during the Pleistocene Ice Age of the last 1-2 million years major
changes occurred in the ocean. The evidence indicates that ____________.
(a) the sea froze even in the tropics
(b) sea level was lowered about 120 meters (400 feet) during maximum advances of the ice
(c) the dinosaurs in the ocean were finally killed off by the cold water
(d) most of the continents were flooded as the sea expanded inland

(b) sea level was lowered about 120 meters (400 feet) during maximum advances of the ice

Eustatic changes in sea level refer to changes in the volume of seawater or changes in the volume of
the ocean basin.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

An increase in the spreading rate at a mid-ocean ridge will cause a decrease in sea level.
(a) True
(b) False

(b) False

Isostatic movement of a coastline might occur due to __________.
(a) additional seawater
(b) changes in the rate of seafloor spreading
(c) the removal of a large glacier that rested in that area
(d) underwater landslides
(e) uplift related to earthquake activity

(c) the removal of a large glacier that rested in that area

Eustatic changes in sea level might include __________.
(a) increase glacial and sea ice melting due to the global warming
(b) rise in sea level due to a large weight of glacier on a continental mass
(c) sinking of the crust due to large increases in sediment load
(d) uplift related to earthquake activity
(e) volcanic activity resulting in the formation of new continental crust

(a) increase glacial and sea ice melting due to the global warming

When seafloor spreading rates increase __________.
(a) new continental crust is formed
(b) sea level falls
(c) subduction increases
(d) there is a rise in sea level
(e) there is no change in sea level

(d) there is a rise in sea level

Emergent coasts might have all of the following characteristics except __________.
(a) cliffs
(b) drowned beaches
(c) exposed wave-cut bench
(d) marine terraces
(e) shell debris found well above current shoreline

(b) drowned beaches

Submergent coasts might have all of the following characteristics except __________.
(a) drowned beaches
(b) drowned river delta
(c) marine terraces
(d) river mouths found below sea level
(e) submerged dune topography

(c) marine terraces

A linear ridge of sediment attached to land at one end might be called a __________.
(a) barrier island
(b) bay barrier
(c) bay-mouth bar
(d) spit
(e) tombolo

(d) spit

Which US coast is being most starved for sediments due to the damming of rivers?
(a) Alaskan
(b) Atlantic
(c) Great Lake states
(d) Gulf
(e) Pacific

(e) Pacific

Nor'easters affect which area of the US coastline during the fall and winter?
(a) Gulf coast
(b) northern Atlantic coast
(c) northern Pacific coast
(d) southern Atlantic coast
(e) southern Pacific coat

(b) northern Atlantic coast

Which US coastline has the greatest average loss due to erosion?
(a) Alaskan
(b) Atlantic
(c) Gulf
(d) New England
(e) Pacific

(c) Gulf

If a beach is wide, gently sloping with fine sands, we would expect to see ____________.
(a) very heavy breakers
(b) a beach facing into Arctic storms
(c) generally small waves winter and summer
(d) high-energy waves all year around
(e) wave erosion as the dominant process

(c) generally small waves winter and summer

The steep cliffs and rugged coast of much of the West Coast of the United States are primarily the
result of ____________.
(a) biological activity
(b) marine deposition
(c) river deposition
(d) glacial erosion
(e) faulting and Earth movement

(e) faulting and Earth movement

Islands that are large deposits of sand separated from the mainland by the water of lagoons, bays, and
estuaries are called ____________.
(a) offshore bars
(b) submarine bars
(c) barrier islands
(d) fjords
(e) jetties

(c) barrier islands

A sand bar that is attached to the shoreline at one end is termed a/an ____________.
(a) fjord
(b) spit
(c) estuary
(d) jetty
(e) groin

(b) spit

Elevated wave-cut platforms in southern California are evidence that this coastal area is emergent.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

The Pacific coast of the US is an example of a coast where active erosion occurs.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

Which of the following pairs does not belong together?
(a) Atlantic-type: thick sediment wedge
(b) emergent: drowned beaches
(c) Pacific-type: earthquake activity
(d) secondary coast: mangroves
(e) submergent: submerged dune topography

...

If one were to walk from the ocean landward across a barrier island complex, in which order would
one encounter the following environments?
(a) barrier flat, dune, beach, low marsh, high marsh
(b) beach, dune, barrier flat, high marsh, low marsh
(c) beach, dune, barrier flat, low marsh, high marsh
(d) dune, barrier flat, beach, high marsh, low marsh
(e) low marsh, high marsh, barrier flat, dune, beach

(b) beach, dune, barrier flat, high marsh, low marsh

The area of the barrier island complex that would contain thickets and woodlands would be the
__________.
(a) barrier flat
(b) dune
(c) high marsh
(d) lagoon
(e) low marsh

(a) barrier flat

The most biologically productive part of a salt marsh would be the __________.
(a) barrier flat
(b) dune
(c) high marsh
(d) low marsh
(e) lagoon

(d) low marsh

Large deposits of sediment at the mouths of rivers are called __________.
(a) barrier flats
(b) barrier islands
(c) bay-mouth bar
(d) deltas
(e) tombolos

(d) deltas

If a river delta is to grow in size, _________ must exceed __________.
(a) erosion ... deposition
(b) deposition ... erosion
(c) primary process ... secondary processes
(d) secondary processes ... primary processes
(e) eustatic processes ... tectonic processes

...

All of the following are examples of features found along primary coasts except __________.
(a) coasts with extensive coral reefs
(b) drowned river valleys
(c) drowned glacial valleys
(d) subaerial deltas
(e) volcanic coasts

...

Which of the following landforms shows the greatest erosion rate along US coasts?
(a) coralline structures of the Florida Keys
(b) crystalline rocks of New England
(c) mud flats
(d) sandy beaches
(e) sedimentary rocks of Pacific Northwest

...

Which of the following landforms shows the least amount of erosion along US coasts?
(a) coralline structures of the Florida Keys
(b) crystalline rocks of New England
(c) mud flats
(d) sandy beaches
(e) sedimentary rocks of Pacific Northwest

(b) crystalline rocks of New England

Which of the following materials you expect to be found on the steepest beach?
(a) coarse sand
(b) fine sand
(c) large gravel
(d) small pebbles
(e) cannot be determined based solely on particle size

...

A problem facing many beaches along the U.S. east and west coasts is ____________.
(a) excess sand being deposited around seaside installations
(b) the rapid growth of deltas at the mouths of rivers
(c) the development of barrier beaches across harbors
(d) the loss of sand and the erosion of beaches

...

Human activities that have contributed to shoreline erosion include ____________.
(a) building of dams across the rivers carrying sediment to the shore
(b) construction of jetties along the beach
(c) placement of seawalls along the shoreline
(d) building artificial breakwater that slow the longshore current system
(e) all of the above

(e) all of the above

Sea caves and sea stacks are more likely to occur in an area with very hard bedrock.
(a) True
(b) False

...

The most common barriers constructed along a coastline are __________.
(a) breakwaters
(b) groins
(c) jetties at harbor entrances
(d) seawalls
(e) spits

...

Which of the following structures is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion?
(a) beach nourishment
(b) groin
(c) seawall
(d) All of these structures prevent or retard shoreline erosion.
(e) Both the groin and seawall prevent or retard shoreline erosion

(d) All of these structures prevent or retard shoreline erosion.

In terms of erosion protection from wave action, seawalls __________.
(a) are cost effective
(b) are ineffective
(c) are moderately effective
(d) are very effective
(e) require very little maintenance

(b) are ineffective

The structure that is built to prevent or diminish sediment deposition at the mouth of harbors is called
a ____________.
(a) pier
(b) spit
(c) groin
(d) jetty
(e) seawall

(d) jetty

Structures that are built along eroding beaches to trap sand artificially and promote accretion are
____________.
(a) piers
(b) spits
(c) groins
(d) jetties
(e) seawalls

(c) groins

The structure that is built in front of harbors or shorelines to redirect wave energy away from the
shoreline is a ____________.
(a) pier
(b) groin
(c) seawall
(d) jetty
(e) breakwater

(e) breakwater

Beach nourishment relies on sand ____________.
(a) deposited by currents
(b) dredged from offshore
(c) quarried on land
(d) deposited by storm waves
(e) both B and C

(c) quarried on land

Seawalls are quite effective at controlling beach erosion.
(a) True
(b) False

(b) False

Groins are constructed for the purpose of maintaining or widening beaches that are losing sand.
(a) True
(b) False

(a) True

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