Ch. 2 - Biology 2404

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Chapter 2 - Basic Chemistry

Describe/describe matter.

Anthing with volume and mass.

What are the 3 states of matter?

Solid, liquid, gas.

Distinguish between physical changes and chemical changes of matter.

Intramolecular bonds are created or destroyed in chemical changes; not in physical changes.

Define/describe energy.

Force moving/holding matter.

Distinguish between chemical, electrical, mechanical and radiant energy.

Chemical - Stored in bonds.
Electrical - Charged particles moving.
Mechanical - Any objects moving.
Radiant - Electromagnetic radiation.

Define/describe ion.

An atom or group of atoms with an overall unbalanced positive or negative charge.

In what form is energy "lost" during energy conversions?

Heat

How is this "loss" most obvious in the body?

Body temperature.

In general how does temperature affect metabolic rate?

Increase temperature often increases metabolic rate.

How many naturally occuring elements are there?

92

Which 4 elements makeup about 96% of the human body by weight?

C, H, O, N

Complete the statement: The checkerboard-like chart that displays the known elements and their general properties is called the _____.

Periodic chart.

Complete the statement: The smallest part of an element that is still that element is an ______.

Atom

Compare the 3 common subatomic particles by mass, charge and location.

Electron - Negative charge, lightweight, in "orbits".
Proton - Positive charge, heavy, in nucleus.
Neutron - No charge, heavy, in nucleus.

How do particles of like charge react to each other?

Repel

Identify the elements that the following atomic symbols represent:

C: Carbon
H: Hydrogen
O: Oxygen
P: Phosphorus
K: Potassium
I: Iodine
N: Nitrogen
S: Sulfur
Ca: Calcium
Fe: Iron
Mg: Magnesium
Na: Sodium
Cl: Chlorine

How do particles of unlike charge react to each other?

Attract

How do neutral particles react to other particles that are electrically charged?

Not attracted or repelled.

Complete the statement: If a neutral atom had 6 protons it would by reason have _____ electrons.

6, the same number of electrons as protons.

What specifically does the atomic number indicate about the structure of an atom of an element?

The exact number of protons in the atom.

Distinguish between atomic number and atomic mass number. Use deuterium and tritium as examples.

Atomic number - Number of protons in atom.
Atomic mass number - Number of protons and number of neutrons in an atom.
Example: Deuterium atomic #1 & atomic mass #2 is one proton and one neutron.

Define/describe isotope.

Atoms of an element that have different atomic mass numbers.

How specifically does the structure of atoms of two isotopes of the same element compare? Why is their atomic number the same? Why is their atomic mass number different?

Same number of protons, different number of neutrons. Same number of protons in each isotope of same element. Different number of neutrons.

Compare the bonding properties of two isotopes of the same element.

Same, because isotopes have the same electron patterns.

Complete the statement: The ___ is the average atomic mass of the relative percentage of all the isotopes of one element.

Atomic weight

What specifically do radioisotopes release that more stable isotopes do not?

Radiation in the form of alpha/beta particles or gamma radiation.

When atoms are struck by ionizing radiation which subatomic particles are usually dislodged?

Electrons

How are radioisotopes useful in diagnosing and treating disease?

Act as traceable markers when introduced to the body and can deliver radiation to specific sites within body.

Define/describe molecule.

Two or more atoms chemically bonded together.

Define/describe compound. Give an example of molecules that are compounds and molecules that are not compounds.

A molecule containing at least 2 different elements.
Compound examples: H2O, CO2, NaCl.
Non-compound examples: H2, O2, N2.

Distinguish between reactants and products in a chemical equation.

Reactants are the "before" and products are the "after" of a chemical reaction; products are made from and replace the reactants.

What are the molecular formulas for water, molecular hydrogen, atmospheric oxygen, methane, carbon dioxide, and sodium chloride?

H2O, H2, O2, CH4, CO2, NaCl

Define/describe electron shell.

The orbit of an electron, the energy level the electron occupies.

Which electron shell is most likely to be directly involved in forming chemical bonds?

Outermost because these outer level electrons are not tightly held by the nucleus' positive charge.

Which region of an atom is most directly involved in forming chemical bonds?

The outer electron orbits.

Describe the "rule of eights" and why it does not apply to the innermost shell.

The outermost shell of an atom is relatively stable if it has a total of 8 electrons; the first shell can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons but this is stable if it is the outermost shell as in helium.

Define/describe ion, anion and cation.

Ion - Atom or molecule with an overall electric charge.
Anion - Negatively charged ion.
Cation - Positively charged ion.

What type of bond is common in "salts"?

Ionic

Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds.

Ionic bond - Relatively weak attraction between anions and cations within a molecule.
Covalent bond - Relatively strong bond between atoms that share outer level electrons within a molecule.

Distinguish between polar and nonpolar molecules. Which type has ionic characteristics?

Nonpolar - Electric charges are evenly distributed across the entire neutral molecule.
Polar - Electric charges are not evenly distributed across the entire neutral molecule and thus charged zones appear and act "ionic".

Where are intramolecular bonds located?

Within one molecule between branches of the structure.

Distinguish between synthesis, decomposition, and exchange reactions. Which type represents anabolism? Catabolism? Growth? Digestion?

Synthesis - Creating a new larger molecule as with anabolism & growth.
Decomposition - Breaking down a larger molecule into smaller components as with catabolism & digestion.
Exchange - Switching pieces between two molecules to create two different molecules as with acid/base neutralization.

Complete the statement: In a chemical equation double arrows between the reactants and products indicates that the reaction is ___.

Reversible

What is the most common difference between inorganic and organic compounds? Identify 2 obvious exceptions to this common distinction.

Organic contains carbon; carbon dioxide & carbon monoxide.

How do temperature, particle concentration and particle size affect the rate of chemical reactions?

Higher temperature, greater particle concentration and smaller particle size often increase the rate of a chemical reaction.

Identify the most abundant inorganic compound in the human body.

Water

Define/describe "high heat capacity". Explain how this characteristic of water helps to stabilize metabolism.

Ability to absorb or release large amount of heat without dramatically changing temperature creates consistent internal environment.

Distinguish between solution, solvent, and solute. Use saltwater as an example and identify each component.

Solution - Mixture of solvent & solutes.
Solvent - Larger component of solution.
Solutes - Smaller components than solvent.
Example: Saltwater is a solution with water as the solvent & salt as the solute.

Compare the solute particle size in solutions, colloids, and suspensions.

Solutions - Smallest particles.
Colloids - Midsize particles.
Suspension - Largest particles.

Which chemical is commonly known as the "universal solvent"? Which chemical characteristic of H2O is most responsible for this distinction?

Water; polarity creating positive & negative edges.

Define/describe hydrolysis reaction.

Chemical reaction in which water is used to split apart a larger molecule.

Which organs are cushioned by cerebrospinal fluid?

Brain & spinal cord.

Define/describe the chemical term "salt".

Ionic compound that doesn't release H+ or OH- ions in solution.

How does the polarity of water molecules aid in the dissociation of salts (and other ionic compounds)?

Salts are composed of cations and anions; polar water molecules tug at the ions within the compound and pull them apart.

Define/describe electrolyte.

Substance that can conduct electricity while in solution.

Why are salts, acids, and bases considered electrolytes?

They ionize and dissociate in a water solution.

Describe how an acid is a proton donor.

An acid releases a H+ ion in solution; H+ is really just a proton (the H nucleus without it's one orbiting electron).

Identify a common acid found in the stomach.

Hydrochloric acid, HCl

What is the formula for the hydroxyl ion?

OH-

Which anion is commonly released (or generated) when a base dissociates in water?

OH- Hydroxyl ion

What is the formula for the bicarbonate ion?

HCO3-

Identify a weak base found in the blood.

Bicarbonate

What are the common products of a neutralization reaction between an acid and a base?

Water and a salt

What is the main function of buffers in regard to the pH of body fluids?

Stabalize PH, prevent sudden changes in PH.

What is the safe homeostatic range for the blood's pH?

7.35 - 7.45

Using the pH scale offer representative numbers for the following: weak acid, strong acid, neutral solution, weak base, strong base.

Weak acid: 5-6
Strong acid: 1-3
Neutral: 7
Weak base: 8-9
Strong base: 13-14

Using the pH scale offer representative numbers for the following: saliva, blood, semen.

Saliva: pH 6
Blood: pH 7.4
Semen: pH 7.4

Identify the 3 most common elements in carbohydrates.

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.

What is the molecular formula for glucose?

C6H12O6

Identify 5 common monosaccharides. Which one is considered the "universal cellular fuel"?

Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose; Glucose is the "universal cell fuel".

Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis.

Dehydration synthesis - Creates a larger molecule from two or more smaller molecules by removing H & OH from the smaller molecules to open binding sites, water (H2O) is created in the process.
Hydrolysis - Creates two or more smaller molecules from a larger molecule by breaking bonds within the larger molecule and "patching" the exposed bonds with H & OH, water is destroyed (dismantled) in the process.

Identify 3 common disaccharides and their "monosaccharide" components.

Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
Lactose = Glucose + Galactose

How do polysaccharides differ from monosaccharides and disaccharides?

Much larger molecules, lack sweet taste.

Identify 2 common polysaccharides.

Starch, glycogen

Identify the 3 most abundant lipids in the body.

Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids.

What are the 3 most common elements in a lipid molecule?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.

How do lipids act in a water environment?

Insoluble in water.

Identify the 4 building blocks of a triglyceride molecule.

One glycerol molecule & three fatty acid molecules.

Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Which one is usually solid at room temperature? Which is usually liquid at room temperature?

Saturated - Only single bond, very regular shape.
Unsaturated - Single & double bonds, irregular shape.
At room temperature: Saturated is solid and unsaturated is liquid/oil.

What are the general functions of triglycerides in the body?

Energy storage, thermal insulation, physical cushioning.

How does a phospholipid molecule differ from a triglyceride molecule?

Triglyceride has 1 glycerol & 3 fatty acids.
Phospholipid has 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, & 1 phosphate group.

Identify the most important steroid molecule that acts as the backbone for the other steroids.

Cholesterol

Identify 4 general uses of this steroid (in #83) in the body.

Stabilize cell membrane; Raw material of bile salts; Raw material of steroids; Raw material of vitamin D.

Complete the statement: In addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen protein molecule characteristically contain the elements ___ and ___ also.

Nitrogen; Sulfur

What are the "building blocks" of proteins?

Amino acids

How many types of amino acids are used in constructing human proteins?

20

Identify the 3 chemical groups found within each amino acid.

Amine group (NH2); Acid group (COOH); and an "R group" which is the variable portion of amino acids.

How many amino acids are found within one protein molecule?

Anywhere from about 50 to thousands.

Complete the statement: A polypeptide molecule contains less than ___ amino acids.

50

Based on overall shape and purpose what are the 2 basic types of proteins?

Fibrous & globular

Compare and contrast the structure, function, and stability of the 2 basic types of proteins.

Fibrous - Thread-like, used for structures, chemically stable.
Globular - "Chunky", used to control reactions & carry materials, chemically unstable.

Which of these 2 groups includes the following: collagen, keratin, antibodies, insulin, hemoglobin, enzymes?

Fibrous - Collagen, keratin.
Globular - Antibodies, insulin, hemoglobin, enzymes.

Where is collagen commonly located in the body?

Bones, tendons, cartilage.

What is the most abundant protein in the body?

Collagen

Where is keratin commonly located in the body?

Skin, hair, nails.

Define/describe denature.

When globular proteins lose their common shape and functionality.

Define/describe enzyme.

Biological catalyst that regulates chemical reactions.

Define/describe catalyst.

Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product or otherwise changed.

Are enzymes changed by the chemical reactions that they control?

No

Which suffix commonly indicates that a chemical is an enzyme?

-ase

Which organic molecules contain genes?

Nucleic acids

Explain the general pathway by which genes control metabolic reactions.

Genes are the recipes for proteins, protein enzymes control chemical reactions, thus metabolism is dictated by genes.

What are the 5 most common elements in a nucleic acid?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus.

What are the "building blocks" of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides

Identify the 3 chemical groups found within each nucleotide.

Nitrogen containing base; pentose sugar; phosphate group.

Distinguish between DNA and RNA by general structure, function, and location within a cell.

DNA - Double helix, contains deoxyribose sugar, stores genetic information, mainly found in nucleus.
RNA - Single strand, contains ribose sugar, delivers & uses genetic information, found in nucleus & cytoplasm (mainly ribosomes).

Which nucleic acid is a double helix? Contains genes? Commonly moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm? May be described as "messenger"? May be described as "ribosomal"? May be described as "transfer"? Is basically disposable within the cytoplasm after being used?

DNA - Double helix, contains genes.
RNA - Moves from nucleus to cytoplasm, may be "messenger", may be "ribosomal", may be "transfer", is basically disposable.

Which molecule represents the most usable form of chemical energy within the cell?

ATP

What do the abbreviations "ATP" and "ADP" specifically stand for?

ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP = Adenosine Diphosphate

What is the main structural difference between ADP and ATP?

ADP has 2 attached phophate groups; ATP has 3 attached phophate groups which includes an extra high energy storing chemical bond.

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