ARRT Radiology: Radiographic Procedures

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Which of the following procedures will best demonstrate the cephalic, basilic, and subclavian veins?

(A) Aortofemoral arteriogram
(B) Upper-limb venogram
(C) Lower-limb venogram
(D) Renal venogram

(B) Upper-limb venogram

In which type of fracture are the splintered ends of bone forced through the skin?

(A) Closed
(B) Compound
(C) Compression
(D) DepressedAnswers and Explanations

(B) Compound

When performing tomography, it is of paramount importance that the radiographer

1. properly apply immobilization.
2. provide adequate radiation protection whenever possible.
3. obtain and check a scout film.

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The sternoclavicular joints are best demonstrated with the patient PA and

(A) in a slight oblique position, affected side adjacent to the image recorder.
(B) in a slight oblique position, affected side away from the image recorder.
(C) erect and weight-bearing.
(D) erect, with and without weights.

(A) in a slight oblique position, affected side adjacent to the image recorder.

Which of the following articulates with the base of the first metatarsal?

(A) First cuneiform
(B) Third cuneiform
(C) Navicular
(D) Cuboid

(A) First cuneiform

The left sacroiliac joint is positioned perpendicular to the film when the patient is positioned in a

(A) left lateral position.
(B) 25 to 30º LAO position.
(C) 25 to 30º LPO position.
(D) 30 to 40º LPO position.

(B) 25 to 30º LAO position.

The advantages of digital subtraction angiography over film angiography include
1. greater contrast medium sensitivity.
2. immediately available images.
3. increased resolution.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following positions will most effectively move the gallbladder away from the vertebrae in the asthenic patient?

(A) LAO
(B) RAO
(C) LPO
(D) Erect

(A) LAO

Which of the following bones participates in the formation of the knee joint?
1. Femur
2. Tibia
3. Patella
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

The PA chest radiograph seen in Figure demonstrates
1. rotation.
2. scapulae removed from lung fields.
3. excessively high contrast.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

With the patient positioned as illustrated in Figure 2-18, which of the following structures is best demonstrated?

(A) Patella
(B) Patellofemoral articulation
(C) Intercondyloid fossa
(D) Tibial tuberosity

(C) Intercondyloid fossa

Which of the following skull positions will demonstrate the cranial base, sphenoidal sinuses, atlas, and odontoid process?

(A) AP axial
(B) Lateral
(C) Parietoacanthial
(D) Submentovertical (SMV)

(D) Submentovertical (SMV)

During a gastrointestinal examination, the AP recumbent projection of a stomach of average shape will usually demonstrate

1. anterior and posterior aspects of the stomach.
2. barium-filled fundus.
3. double-contrast body and antral portions.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following is a radiologic procedure that functions to dilate a stenotic vessel?

(A) Percutaneous nephrolithotomy
(B) Percutaneous angioplasty
(C) Renal arteriography
(D) Surgical nephrostomy

(B) Percutaneous angioplasty

Which of the following techniques would provide a PA projection of the gastroduodenal surfaces of the barium-filled, high and transverse stomach?

(A) Place the patient in a 35 to 40º RAO position.
(B) Place the patient in a lateral position.
(C) Angle the central ray 35 to 45º cephalad.
(D) Angle the central ray 35 to 45º caudad.

(C) Angle the central ray 35 to 45º cephalad.

Which of the following are demonstrated in the oblique position of the cervical spine?
1. Intervertebral foramina
2. Apophyseal joints
3. Intervertebral joints
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

What should be done if the patient is unable to extend his or her head sufficiently for the acanthioparietal projection (reverse Waters' method)?

1. Place a support behind the patient's shoulders.
2. Angle cephalad.
3. Angle caudad.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following is (are) valid criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?

1. The radius and ulna should be superimposed proximally and distally.
2. The coronoid process and radial head should be superimposed.
3. The radial tuberosity should face anteriorly.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following statements is (are) correct regarding the parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method) of the skull?

1. The head is rested on the extended chin.
2. The OML is perpendicular to the film.
3. The maxillary antra should be projected above the petrosa.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

Patients are instructed to remove all jewelry, hair clips, metal prostheses, coins, and credit cards before entering the room for an examination in
(A) sonography.
(B) computed axial tomography (CAT).
(C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
(D) nuclear medicine.

(C) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

What should the patient be instructed to remove prior to x-ray examination of the chest?
1. Dentures
2. Earrings
3. Necklaces
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 3 only

"Flattening" of the hemidiaphragms is characteristic of which of the following conditions?
(A) Pneumothorax
(B) Emphysema
(C) Pleural effusion
(D) Pneumonia

(B) Emphysema

An intrathecal injection is associated with which of the following examinations?
(A) IVP
(B) Retrograde pyelogram
(C) Myelogram
(D) Arthrogram

(C) Myelogram

During myelography, contrast medium is introduced into the
(A) subdural space.
(B) subarachnoid space.
(C) epidural space.
(D) epidermal space.

(B) subarachnoid space.

Arthrography requires the use of
1. general anesthesia.
2. sterile technique.
3. fluoroscopy.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Ingestion of barium sulfate is contraindicated in which of the following situations?
1. Suspected perforation of a hollow viscus
2. Suspected large-bowel obstruction
3. Presurgical patients
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

In the lateral projection of the knee, the
1. femoral condyles are superimposed.
2. patellofemoral joint is visualized.
3. knee is flexed about 20 to 30º.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

To obtain an AP projection of the right ilium, the patient's
(A) left side is elevated 40º.
(B) right side is elevated 40º.
(C) left side is elevated 15º.
(D) right side is elevated 15º.

(A) left side is elevated 40º.

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the carpal scaphoid?
(A) Lateral wrist
(B) Ulnar flexion
(C) Radial flexion
(D) Carpal tunnel

(B) Ulnar flexion

All of the following statements regarding large-bowel radiography are true except

(A) The large bowel must be completely empty prior to examination.
(B) Retained fecal material can simulate pathology.
(C) Single-contrast studies help to demonstrate polyps.
(D) Double-contrast studies help to demonstrate intraluminal lesions.

(C) Single-contrast studies help to demonstrate polyps.

The body habitus characterized by a long and narrow thoracic cavity and low, midline stomach and gallbladder is the
(A) asthenic.
(B) hyposthenic.
(C) sthenic.
(D) hypersthenic.

(A) asthenic.

Posterior displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
(A) AP projection.
(B) lateral projection.
(C) medial oblique projection.
(D) lateral oblique projection.

(B) lateral projection.

Which of the following examinations require(s) special identification markers in addition to the usual patient name and number, date, and side marker?
1. IVP
2. Tomography
3. Abdominal survey
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The ridge that marks the bifurcation of the trachea into the right and left primary bronchi is the
(A) root.
(B) hilus.
(C) carina.
(D) epiglottis.

(C) carina.

Peripheral lymphatic vessels are located using
(A) ethiodized oil.
(B) blue dye.
(C) a tiny scalpel.
(D) water-soluble iodinated media.

(B) blue dye.

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the tarsal navicular free of superimposition?
(A) AP oblique, medial rotation
(B) AP oblique, lateral rotation
(C) Mediolateral
(D) Lateral weight-bearing

(A) AP oblique, medial rotation

Which of the following positions demonstrates all the paranasal sinuses?
(A) Parietoacanthial
(B) PA axial
(C) Lateral
(D) True PA

(C) Lateral

Which of the following examinations require(s) ureteral catheterization?
1. Retrograde pyelogram
2. Cystourethrogram
3. Cystoscopy
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

What is the position of the gallbladder in an asthenic patient?
(A) Superior and medial
(B) Superior and lateral
(C) Inferior and medial
(D) Inferior and lateral

(C) Inferior and medial

The scapular Y projection of the shoulder demonstrates
1. an oblique projection of the shoulder.
2. anterior or posterior dislocation.
3. a lateral projection of the shoulder.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

What are the positions most commonly employed for a radiographic examination of the sternum?
1. Lateral
2. RAO
3. LAO
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

Examples of synovial pivot articulations include the
1. atlantoaxial joint
2. radioulnar joint
3. temporomandibulon joint
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following is a major cause of bowel obstruction in children?
(A) Appendicitis
(B) Intussusception
(C) Regional enteritis
(D) Ulcerative colitis

(B) Intussusception

In order to evaluate the interphalangeal joints in the oblique and lateral positions, the fingers
(A) rest on the cassette for immobilization.
(B) must be supported parallel to the film.
(C) are radiographed in natural flexion.
(D) are radiographed in palmar flexion.

(B) must be supported parallel to the film.

Tracheostomy and intubation are effective techniques used to restore breathing when there is (are)
(A) respiratory pathway obstruction above the larynx.
(B) crushed tracheal rings due to trauma.
(C) lower respiratory pathway closure due to inflammation and swelling.
(D) respiratory pathway obstruction below the larynx.

(A) respiratory pathway obstruction above the larynx.

All of the following are mediastinal structures except the
(A) esophagus.
(B) thymus.
(C) heart.
(D) terminal bronchiole.

(D) terminal bronchiole.

Which of the following is most likely to be the correct routine for a radiographic examination of the forearm?
(A) PA and medial oblique
(B) AP and lateral oblique
(C) PA and lateral
(D) AP and lateral

(D) AP and lateral

During chest radiography, the act of inspiration
1. elevates the diaphragm.
2. raises the ribs.
3. depresses the abdominal viscera.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following statements regarding myelography is (are) correct?

1. Spinal puncture may be performed in the prone or flexed lateral position.
2. Contrast medium distribution is regulated through x-ray tube angulation.
3. The patient's neck must be in extension during Trendelenburg positions.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

Which of the following can be used to demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?

1. Patient PA, knee flexed 40º, central ray directed caudad 40º to the popliteal fossa
2. Patient AP, cassette under flexed knee, central ray directed cephalad to knee, perpendicular to tibia
3. Patient PA, patella parallel to film, heel rotated 5 to 10º lateral, central ray perpendicular to knee joint

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

That portion of a long bone where cartilage has been replaced by bone is known as the
(A) diaphysis.
(B) epiphysis.
(C) metaphysis.
(D) apophysis.

(C) metaphysis.

The true lateral position of the skull uses which of the following principles?

1. Interpupillary line perpendicular to the film
2. MSP perpendicular to the film
3. Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) parallel to the transverse axis of the film

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

All of the following are palpable bony landmarks used in radiography of the pelvis except the
(A) femoral neck.
(B) pubic symphysis.
(C) greater trochanter.
(D) iliac crest.

(A) femoral neck.

Which projection(s) of the abdomen would be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?

1. Right lateral decubitus
2. Left lateral decubitus
3. Upright

(A) 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following may be used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?

1. Scapular Y projection
2. Inferosuperior axial
3. Transthoracic lateral

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following bony landmarks is in the same transverse plane as the symphysis pubis?

(A) Ischial tuberosity
(B) Most prominent part of the greater trochanter
(C) Anterior superior iliac spine
(D) Anterior inferior iliac spine

(B) Most prominent part of the greater trochanter

Which of the following are demonstrated in the lateral projection of the thoracic spine?
1. Intervertebral spaces
2. Apophyseal joints
3. Intervertebral foramina
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

The medial oblique projection of the elbow demonstrates the
1. olecranon process within the olecranon fossa.
2. radial head free of superimposition.
3. coronoid process free of superimposition.

(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

All of the following statements regarding respiratory structures are true except
(A) The right lung has two lobes.
(B) The uppermost portion of the lung is the apex.
(C) Each lung is enclosed in pleura.
(D) The trachea bifurcates into mainstem bronchi.

(A) The right lung has two lobes.

The pedicle is represented by what part of the "scotty dog" seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine?
(A) Eye
(B) Front foot
(C) Body
(D) Neck

(A) Eye

The AP projection of the sacrum requires that the central ray be directed

1. 15º cephalad.
2. 2 in superior to the pubic symphysis.
3. midline at the level of the lesser trochanter.

(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

(A) 1 only

All of the following positions are likely to be employed for both single-contrast and double-contrast examinations of the large bowel except

(A) lateral rectum.
(B) AP axial rectosigmoid.
(C) right and left lateral decubitus abdomen.
(D) RAO and LAO abdomen.

(C) right and left lateral decubitus abdomen.

What is the name of the condition that results in the forward slipping of one vertebra on the one below it?
(A) Spondylitis
(B) Spondylolysis
(C) Spondylolisthesis
(D) Spondylosis

(C) Spondylolisthesis

Which of the following describe(s) the correct placement of mammographic markers?

1. In the mediolateral projection, they are placed along the upper border of the breast.
2. In the craniocaudal projection, they are placed along the lateral aspect of the breast.
3. In the oblique projection, they are placed along the lateral aspect of the breast.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following projections of the ankle would best demonstrate the distal tibiofibular joint?
(A) Medial oblique 15 to 20º
(B) Lateral oblique 15 to 20º
(C) Medial oblique 45º
(D) Lateral oblique 45º

(C) Medial oblique 45º

Involuntary motion can be caused by
1. peristalsis.
2. severe pain.
3. heart muscle contraction.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

All of the following may be determined by oral cholecystography except
(A) liver function.
(B) ability of the gallbladder to concentrate bile.
(C) emptying power of the gallbladder.
(D) pancreatic function.

(D) pancreatic function.

When evaluating a PA axial projection of the skull with a 15º caudal angle, the radiographer should see
1. petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits.
2. equal distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral rim of the orbit bilaterally.
3. symmetrical petrous pyramids.

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following structures is (are) located in the LUQ?
1. Stomach
2. Spleen
3. Cecum
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following articulations participate(s) in formation of the ankle mortise?
1. Talotibial
2. Talocalcaneal
3. Talofibular
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 3 only

(B) 1 and 3 only

Which of the following is recommended to demonstrate small amounts of air within the peritoneal cavity?
(A) Lateral decubitus, affected side up
(B) Lateral decubitus, affected side down
(C) AP Trendelenburg
(D) AP supine

(A) Lateral decubitus, affected side up

Which of the following tube angle and direction combinations is correct for an axial projection of the clavicle, with the patient in the AP recumbent position on the x-ray table?
(A) 10 to 15º caudad
(B) 10 to 15º cephalad
(C) 25 to 30º cephalad
(D) 25 to 30º caudad

(C) 25 to 30º cephalad

With the patient PA, MSP centered to the grid, the OML forming a 37º angle with the film, and the central ray perpendicular and exiting the acanthion, which of the following is best demonstrated?
(A) Occipital bone
(B) Frontal bone
(C) Facial bones
(D) Basal foramina

(C) Facial bones

Which of the following projection(s) require(s) that the shoulder be placed in internal rotation?
1. AP humerus
2. Lateral forearm
3. Lateral humerus
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 3 only

Which of the following describes correct centering for the lateral position of a barium-filled stomach?

(A) Midway between the vertebrae and the left lateral margin of the abdomen
(B) Midway between the midcoronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen
(C) Midway between the midsagittal plane and the right lateral margin of the abdomen
(D) Midway between the midcoronal plane and the posterior surface of the abdomen

(B) Midway between the midcoronal plane and the anterior surface of the abdomen

AP erect left and right bending films of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, to include 1 in of the iliac crest, are performed to demonstrate
(A) spondylolisthesis.
(B) subluxation.
(C) scoliosis.
(D) arthritis.

(C) scoliosis.

Which of the following is a condition in which an occluded blood vessel stops blood flow to a portion of the lungs?
(A) Pneumothorax
(B) Atelectasis
(C) Pulmonary embolism
(D) Hypoxia

(C) Pulmonary embolism

Which of the following sinus groups is demonstrated with the patient positioned as for a parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method) and the central ray directed through the patient's open mouth?
(A) Frontal
(B) Ethmoidal
(C) Maxillary
(D) Sphenoidal

(D) Sphenoidal

During atrial systole, blood flows into the right ventricle by way of what valve?
(A) Pulmonary semilunar
(B) Aortic
(C) Mitral
(D) Tricuspid

(D) Tricuspid

What instructions might a patient be given following an upper GI examination?
1. Drink plenty of fluids.
2. Take a mild laxative.
3. Increase dietary fiber.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

With the patient in the PA position and the OML and central ray perpendicular to the film, the resulting radiograph will demonstrate the petrous pyramids
(A) below the orbits.
(B) in the lower one-third of the orbits.
(C) completely within the orbits.
(D) above the orbits.

(C) completely within the orbits.

The ileocecal valve is normally located in which of the following body regions?
(A) Right iliac
(B) Left iliac
(C) Right lumbar
(D) Hypogastric

(A) Right iliac

The four major arteries supplying the brain include the
1. brachiocephalic artery.
2. common carotid arteries.
3. vertebral arteries.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

During intravenous (IV) urography, the prone position is generally recommended to demonstrate
1. filling of obstructed ureters.
2. the renal pelvis.
3. the superior calyces.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

The sigmoid colon is located in the
(A) left upper quadrant (LUQ).
(B) left lower quadrant (LLQ).
(C) right upper quadrant (RUQ).
(D) right lower quadrant (RLQ).

(B) left lower quadrant (LLQ).

Which of the following projections is most likely to demonstrate the carpal pisiform free of superimposition?
(A) Radial flexion
(B) Ulnar flexion
(C) AP oblique
(D) AP 6.

(C) AP oblique

The uppermost portion of the iliac crest is at approximately the same level as the
(A) costal margin.
(B) umbilicus.
(C) xiphoid tip.
(D) fourth lumbar vertebra.

(D) fourth lumbar vertebra.

Which of the following positions would be obtained with the patient lying prone recumbent on the radiographic table, and the central ray directed horizontally to the iliac crest?
(A) Ventral decubitus position
(B) Dorsal decubitus position
(C) Left lateral decubitus position
(D) Right lateral decubitus position

(A) Ventral decubitus position

Which of the following positions will best demonstrate the left axillary portion of the ribs?
(A) Left lateral
(B) PA
(C) LPO
(D) RPO

(C) LPO

The inhalation of liquid or solid particles into the nose, throat, or lungs is referred to as
(A) asphyxia
(B) aspiration
(C) atelectasis
(D) asystole

(B) aspiration

In the lateral projection of the scapula, the
1. vertebral and axillary borders are superimposed.
2. acromion and coracoid processes are superimposed.
3. patient may be examined in the erect position.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

Which of the following positions will demonstrate the right axillary ribs?
1. RAO
2. LAO
3. RPO
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Inspiration and expiration projections of the chest may be performed to demonstrate
1. pneumothorax.
2. foreign body.
3. atelectasis.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

To best visualize the lower ribs, the exposure should be made
(A) on normal inspiration.
(B) on inspiration, second breath.
(C) on expiration.
(D) during shallow breathing.

(C) on expiration.

To demonstrate the entire circumference of the radial head, exposure(s) must be made with the

1. epicondyles perpendicular to the cassette.
2. hand pronated and supinated as much as possible.
3. hand lateral and in internal rotation.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

The plane that passes vertically through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior halves, is termed the
(A) median sagittal plane.
(B) midcoronal plane.
(C) sagittal plane.
(D) transverse plane.

(B) midcoronal plane.

In which projection of the foot are the sinus tarsi, cuboid, and tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal best demonstrated?
(A) Lateral oblique foot
(B) Medial oblique foot
(C) Lateral foot
(D) Weight-bearing foot

(B) Medial oblique foot

The contrast media of choice for use in myelography are
(A) ionic non-water-soluble.
(B) ionic water-soluble.
(C) nonionic water-soluble.
(D) gas.

(C) nonionic water-soluble.

A patient is usually required to drink barium sulfate suspension in order to demonstrate which of the following structures?
1. Esophagus
2. Pylorus
3. Ilium
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

The stomach of an asthenic patient is most likely to be located
(A) high, transverse, and lateral.
(B) low, transverse, and lateral.
(C) high, vertical, and toward the midline.
(D) low, vertical, and toward the midline.

(D) low, vertical, and toward the midline

What portion of the humerus articulates with the ulna to help form the elbow joint?
(A) Semilunar / trochlear notch
(B) Radial head
(C) Capitulum
(D) Trochlea

(D) Trochlea

Which of the following precaution(s) should be observed when radiographing a patient who has sustained a traumatic injury to the hip?

1. When a fracture is suspected, manipulation of the affected extremity should be performed by a physician.
2. The AP axiolateral projection should be avoided.
3. To evaluate the entire region, the pelvis is typically included in the initial examination.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 3 only

Fluoroscopic imaging of the ileocecal valve is generally part of a(n)
(A) esophagram.
(B) upper GI series.
(C) small-bowel series.
(D) ERCP.

(C) small-bowel series.

Which of the following would be the best choice for a right shoulder exam to rule out fracture?
(A) Internal and external rotation
(B) AP and tangential
(C) AP and AP axial
(D) AP and scapular Y

(D) AP and scapular Y

T-tube cholangiography is performed
(A) preoperatively.
(B) during surgery.
(C) postoperatively.
(D) with a Chiba needle.

(C) postoperatively.

At what level do the carotid arteries bifurcate?
(A) Foramen magnum
(B) Trachea
(C) Pharynx
(D) C4

(D) C4

The fifth metacarpal is located on which aspect of the hand?
(A) Medial
(B) Lateral
(C) Ulnar
(D) Volar

(A) Medial

Which of the following vertebral groups form(s) lordotic curve(s)?
1. Cervical
2. Thoracic
3. Lumbar
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

(D) 1 and 3 only

In the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the central ray should be directed
(A) parallel to C4.
(B) perpendicular to C4.
(C) 15º cephalad to C4.
(D) 15º caudad to C4.

(C) 15º cephalad to C4.

Examination of the pars petrosae in the posterior profile position (Stenvers method) requires
1. the use of the IOML.
2. the MSP to be rotated 45º.
3. that the head rest on the forehead, nose, and chin.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following is (are) required for a lateral projection of the skull?

1. The IOML is parallel to the film.
2. The MSP is perpendicular to the film.
3. The central ray enters 2 in superior to the external auditory meatus (EAM).

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 3 only

Which of the following conditions is often the result of ureteral obstruction or stricture?
(A) Pyelonephrosis
(B) Nephroptosis
(C) Hydronephrosis
(D) Cystourethritis

(C) Hydronephrosis

In a lateral projection of the nasal bones, the central ray is directed

(A) 1/2 in posterior to the anterior nasal spine.
(B) 3/4 in posterior to the glabella.
(C) 3/4 in distal to the nasion.
(D) 1/2 in anterior to the EAM.

(C) 3/4 in distal to the nasion.

Which of the following positions is essential in radiography of the paranasal sinuses?
(A) Erect
(B) Recumbent
(C) Oblique
(D) Trendelenburg

(A) Erect

Which of the following radiologic examinations can demonstrate ureteral reflux?
(A) Intravenous urogram
(B) Retrograde pyelogram
(C) Voiding cystourethrogram
(D) Nephrotomogram

(C) Voiding cystourethrogram

Which of the following is (are) recommended when positioning the patient for a lateral projection of the chest?

1. The patient should be examined upright.
2. The shoulders should be depressed.
3. The shoulders should be rolled forward.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

In myelography, the contrast medium is generally injected into the
(A) cisterna magna.
(B) individual intervertebral disks.
(C) subarachnoid space between the first and second lumbar vertebrae.
(D) subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.

(D) subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.

Which of the following will best demonstrate acromioclavicular separation?
(A) AP recumbent, affected shoulder
(B) AP recumbent, both shoulders
(C) AP erect, affected shoulder
(D) AP erect, both shoulders

(D) AP erect, both shoulders

Which of the following is a functional study used to demonstrate the degree of AP motion present in the cervical spine?
(A) Open-mouth projection
(B) Moving mandible AP
(C) Flexion and extension laterals
(D) Right and left bending AP

(C) Flexion and extension laterals

The two palpable bony landmarks that are generally used for accurate localization of the hip are the

(A) anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and symphysis pubis.
(B) iliac crest and greater trochanter.
(C) symphysis pubis and greater trochanter.
(D) iliac crest and symphysis pubis.

(A) anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and symphysis pubis.

Which of the following structures is (are) located in the right lower quadrant (RLQ)?
1. Gallbladder
2. Hepatic flexure
3. Cecum
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 3 only

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding lower-extremity venography?

1. The patient is often examined in the semierect position.
2. Contrast medium is injected through a vein in the foot.
3. Filming begins at the hip and proceeds inferiorly.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

A lateral projection of the hand in extension is often recommended to evaluate
1. a fracture.
2. a foreign body.
3. soft tissue.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

(C) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following radiologic procedures requires that a contrast medium be injected into the renal pelvis via a catheter placed within the ureter?
(A) Nephrotomography
(B) Retrograde urography
(C) Cystourethrography
(D) IV urography

(B) Retrograde urography

Which of the following equipment is necessary for ERCP?

1. A fluoroscopic unit with spot film and tilt table capabilities
2. A fiberoptic endoscope
3. Polyethylene catheters

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Operative cholangiography may be performed to

1. visualize biliary stones or a neoplasm.
2. determine function of the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
3. examine the patency of the biliary tract.

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Knee arthrography may be performed to demonstrate a
1. torn meniscus.
2. Baker's cyst.
3. torn rotator cuff.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

What process is best seen using a perpendicular CR with the elbow in acute flexion and with the posterior aspect of the humerus adjacent to the image recorder?
(A) Coracoid
(B) Coronoid
(C) Olecranon
(D) Glenoid

(C) Olecranon

Which of the following interventional procedures can be used to increase the diameter of a stenosed vessel?

1. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA)
2. stent placement
3. peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line)

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

To make the patient as comfortable as possible during a single-contrast barium enema (BE), the radiographer should

1. instruct the patient to relax the abdominal muscles to prevent intraabdominal pressure.
2. instruct the patient to concentrate on breathing deeply to reduce colonic spasm.
3. prepare a warm barium suspension (98 to 105ºF) to aid in retention.

(A) 2 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Which projection of the foot will best demonstrate the longitudinal arch?
(A) Mediolateral
(B) Lateromedial
(C) Lateral weight-bearing
(D) 30º medial oblique

(C) Lateral weight-bearing

In which of the following projections is the talofibular joint best demonstrated?
(A) AP
(B) Lateral oblique
(C) Medial oblique
(D) Lateral

(C) Medial oblique

Which of the following barium-filled anatomic structures is best demonstrated in the LAO position?
(A) Hepatic flexure
(B) Splenic flexure
(C) Sigmoid colon
(D) Ileocecal valve

(B) Splenic flexure

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually involves

1. cannulation of the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
2. introduction of contrast medium into the common bile duct.
3. introduction of barium directly into the duodenum.

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Movement of a part toward the midline of the body is termed
(A) eversion.
(B) inversion.
(C) abduction.
(D) adduction.

(D) adduction.

In the posterior profile projection (Stenvers method) of the petrous pyramids, the

1. central ray is directed 12º cephalad.
2. MSP is 45º to the film.
3. head rests on the zygoma, nose, and chin.

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

When the patient is recumbent and the central ray is directed horizontally, the patient is said to be in the
(A) Trendelenburg position.
(B) Fowler's position.
(C) decubitus position.
(D) Sims position.

(C) decubitus position.

Which of the following is located at the interspace between the fourth and fifth thoracic vertebrae?
(A) Manubrium
(B) Jugular notch
(C) Sternal angle
(D) Xiphoid process

(C) Sternal angle

In the lateral projection of the knee, the central ray is angled 5º cephalad in order to prevent superimposition of which of the following structures on the joint space?
(A) Lateral femoral condyle
(B) Medial femoral condyle
(C) Patella
(D) Tibial eminence

(B) Medial femoral condyle

The manubrial notch is at approximately the same level as the
(A) fifth thoracic vertebra.
(B) T2-3 interspace.
(C) T4-5 interspace.
(D) costal margin.

(B) T2-3 interspace.

The apophyseal articulations of the thoracic spine are demonstrated with the
(A) coronal plane 45º to the film.
(B) midsagittal plane 45º to the film.
(C) coronal plane 70º to the film.
(D) midsagittal plane 70º to the film.

(C) coronal plane 70º to the film.

To demonstrate esophageal varices, the patient must be examined in
(A) the recumbent position.
(B) the erect position.
(C) the anatomic position.
(D) Fowler's position.

(A) the recumbent position.

With which of the following does the trapezium articulate?
(A) Fifth metacarpal
(B) First metacarpal
(C) Distal radius
(D) Distal ulna

(B) First metacarpal

The short, thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body are the
(A) transverse processes.
(B) vertebral arches.
(C) laminae.
(D) pedicles.

(D) pedicles.

Which of the following is recommended in order to better demonstrate the tarso-metatarsal joints in the dorsoplantar projection of the foot?

(A) Invert the foot
(B) Evert the foot
(C) Angle the central ray 10º posteriorly
(D) Angle the central ray 10º anteriorly

(C) Angle the central ray 10º posteriorly

The AP axial projection, or "frog leg" position, of the femoral neck places the patient in a supine position with the affected thigh
(A) adducted 25º from the horizontal.
(B) abducted 25º from the vertical.
(C) adducted 40º from the horizontal.
(D) abducted 40º from the vertical.

(D) abducted 40º from the vertical.

Which of the following is (are) located on the posterior aspect of the femur?
1. Intercondyloid fossa
2. Intertrochanteric crest
3. Intertubercular groove
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

Place the following anatomic structures in order from anterior to posterior:
1. Trachea
2. Apex of heart
3. Esophagus
(A) Trachea, esophagus, apex of heart
(B) Esophagus, trachea, apex of heart
(C) Apex of heart, trachea, esophagus
(D) Apex of heart, esophagus, trachea

(C) Apex of heart, trachea, esophagus

The usual patient preparation for an upper GI series is
(A) clear fluids 8 h prior to exam.
(B) NPO after midnight.
(C) enemas until clear before exam.
(D) light breakfast the day of the exam.

(B) NPO after midnight.

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