a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation center of Russia and the continent. Moscow is the northernmost megacity on Earth, the most populous city in Europe, and the fifth largest city proper in the world. Its population, according to the results of the 2010 Census, is 11,503,501.[
of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. In 1914 the name of the city was changed to Petrograd (Russian: Петроград; IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), in 1924 to Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград; IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]) and in 1991 back to Saint Petersburg.
is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300., capital and largest city of the Ukraine
The Volga is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. It flows through central Russia, and is widely viewed as the national river
a river that rises in Russia near Smolensk and flowing south through Belarus and Ukraine to empty into the Black Sea
a European river in southwestern Russia
a river in central Russia that flows almost directly north and empties into the Arctic Sea
a Russian river in Siberia
a major river of western Siberia
Deepest lake in the world. Holds 20% of earth's fresh water
a vast treeless plain in the arctic regions between the ice cap and the tree line
the coldest climate
ground that is permanently frozen
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)
land that is covered with trees and shrubs
an arid region with little or no vegetation
any member of the people of eastern Europe or Asian Russia who speak a Slavonic language
Rus military leader and legendary first king of the Russians
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term "Russia". It was greatly influenced by Byzantine
The Russian ruler responsible for converting the country to Christianity
russian form of Christianity imported from Byzantine Empire and combined with local religion; king characteristically controlled major appointments
a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century
a Russian prince who collected taxes for the Mongols, fought off enemies, and put down peasant riots. He was sainted after his death.
Order of knights devoted to Christianity and to fighting Muslims and pagans. Most active in Baltic region where they fought Slavs.
a city in northwestern Russia on the Volkhov River
a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Ivan III the great
Ivan III, was the Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government
Ivan IV (the terrible)
Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars; continued policy of expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture.
The secret army/police created by Ivan IV that he used to kill anyone who got in his way (i.e. the Boyars)
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service, the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th Century
assimilation of Western culture
Ivan the terrible's friend who looked after things while Feodor ruled. He was suposed to become next tzar until the false dmitri came and Boris killed himself.
Multiple false impersonators of Dmitri, Ivan's third son.
dynasty that favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
The new Czar of Russia after Ivan, he ended the Time of Troubles
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of western European models.
great northern war
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
German wife of Peter III of Russia and came to power after his murder; ruled Russia 1762-1796; interested in enlightend reforms but didnt do any; had policy favoring landed nobility but this led to worse conditions for Russian peasents and led to rebellion; the rebellion spread across spouthern Russia but she halted all reform and serfdom expanded into newer parts of the empire; expanded Russian Empire
this war consisted in large part of the British and French punishing each other by issuing decrees tha would blockade trade into one another's ports., On May 18, 1803, Napoelon launches his war. He tries to invade England but his fleet is destroyed by the Royal Navy. In 1805-7, he launches a series of campaigns that conquer most of mainland Europe.
Battle of Bordino
-west of Moscow
-described in Tolstoy's War and Peace
-Napoleon defeats Russians at Borodino, but when the Russians retreat to Moscow they evacuate everything leaving nothing for the victors.
-Napoleon retreats back to France during the winter with miserable troops, chased out of the country by the Russians.
-1812 Overture: by Chykowsky
-Napoleon is exiled from France to St. Helena and he dies there.
-Alexander I is a hero
an overture compoed by Tchaicovsky, famous Russian composer, that depicted the battle of Borodino
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
czar of Russia from 1825 to 1855 who led Russia into the Crimean War (1796-1855)
Russian radical group, formed from noble families and elite regiments. Hoped to persuade Constantine to assum the throne but failed.
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
the son of Nicholas I who, as czar of Russia, introduced reforms that included limited emancipation of the serfs (1818-1881)
The changes made by Alexander II around the 1860s that included abolishing serfdom and creating zemstovs.
The plan created by Alexander II in 1861 that freed the serfs but eventually had negative effects. many of the serfs' standard of living drops. Many don't know how to run their own buisness.
A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms
an organized persecution or massacre
agrarian socialism and reforms group, a revolutionary group opposing Alexander II
land and freedom
opposition group belived in Marxism
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
Taking land from the rich and giving it to the poor in order to close the gap between rich and poor.
the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
social revolution party. constitutional. used persuasion. promoted agrarian socialism. leader: victor chernov.
social Democratic party. very violent/revolutionary promoted marxist socialism. founder - Gregory plekhanov (mentored lenin)
Means "minority". Group created from the split of the SDs, led by Martov. Tried to take power from Bolsheviks in Civil war beginning in 1918, but did not succeed.
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
- Traditional values and structures:
Tsarist = rule by divine right
- Bureaucracy, Provincial Government, Russian Orthodox Church and Police (both secret and overt)
* Little infrastructure to deal with large social problems = fueled public anger.
* Emerging intelligentsia.
*Extreme groups = terrorism and rebellion.
*Government attempted to preserve autocracy by censoring and repressing those who called for reform.
The revolution that began January 1905 with Bloody Sunday and ended with Nicholas II creating the October Manifesto.
January 9, 1905
-Workers, wives, and children peacefully marched to bring a petition to the Tsar's winter palace
-Tsar's troops fired at the protestors
-200 died, 800 wounded that day
-later known as "Bloody Sunday" and permanently altered the attitudes of the people toward the Tsar and his government.
(1905), issued by Nich. II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
The elected parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.
A tough finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness
named by Nicolas 2 as prime minister. Did undertake some rural reforms beginning in 1906
Siberian peasant monk who was religious advisor in the court of Nicholas II
World War I
a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
A branch of Marxism which involves the Antithesis clashing with the Thesis and eventually forming a Synthesis.
situation as is now
opposition to current way of things
the combination of separate parts into a unified whole
A branch of Marxism which says that societies are determined by their economies (or economic systems).
Conflict between the proletariat and the capitalists (bourgiousie) (owners)
Karl Marx's term for the capitalist class, comprising the owners of the means of production, upper-upper middle class.
a social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages
the difference between the total value of production and the subsistence wages paid to workers
a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole., a political theory advocating state ownership of industry. step down from communism.
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Lenin's interpretation of Marxism. This included his belief that workers alone cannot organize a revolution; they need professional revolutionaries to give them a "shove" (inspiration), as well as his belief that sometimes a revolution must be slowed or reversed to ensure that power can be maintained by the proletariat. And finally, this made clear his belief that revolution can occur at any time, in any place, and not just in an advanced capitalist nation. This three points justified the need for Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the NEP, and all this occuring in Russia respectively.
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
1st of 2 revolutions to topple Romanov dynasty, overthrew Czar Nicholas, and set up the provisional government
giving up control authority
the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution
Russia's legislative Duma formed it in order to restore order. It was challenged by the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; a temporary government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
headed the provisional govt from March to July of 1917
the bolsheviks, lead by lenin seize St.petersburg adn to legitimize his rule lenin holds elections which he loses; parliment is disbanded
an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
secret police, formed by Lenin
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Treaty making peace btwn Germany and Russia
russian civil war
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
What the SRs, Mensheviks, Czarists, and anti-communist foreign nations were known as in the civil war from 1918-1921.
New Economic Policy, (1921) allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit stopped harassing peasants for grain, and peasants held on to small plots of land and sold surplus
a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia