removal of drug from body
places drugs excreted from
glomerlular filtration affected by:
1. kidney health/blood perfusion
2.chem/phys properties (only small mols filtered, protein bound drug is not filtered)
3. water soluble drugs can be reabsorbed in tubules
4. pH of urine
active secretion (affects kidney filtration)
proximal or distal tubules
penicillin concentrates in urine, good for UTI
bile stored in gallbladder, drugs actively secreted by livers cells into bile, through intestinal tract
-drug may get reabsorbed into body if its still lipophilic (enterohepatic circulation)
wormers, neomycin dont get absorbed orally, go out in feces
drugs go from blood to milk, may get ion trapped (normal pH of milk is 6-7, mastitis milk is 7-8)
half life of drug
amt of time it takes for half the drug to leave body
-antibiotics= 2-3 hr halflife
-barbituates= 30-70 hours
abnormal response to drug by individual
decrease dose due to allergy/side effects
HOW DRUGS EXERT EFFECTS
-drug binds to target cells at receptor sites on cell
-receptor sites are different (unique for drug)
-drug + correct receptor= desired response
drug stimulates the site
drug inhibits activity at site, blocks/reverses another drug's activity at the site
naloxone (opioids), flumazenil (valium), tolazoline (LA rompun)
sum of both drugs is greater than the benefit of each used and added up (2+2=5)
quartermaster (pen G and dihydrostreptomycin) in dry cow's udder (2 drugs does better than each separately)
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