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In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of youngsters closes too early. What might be the cause ....

elevated levels of sex hormones

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of the bone is the .....

Osteoblast

The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called ....

Lacunae

Vertebrae are considered ..... bones.

Irregular

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ...

Fat

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo...

Hyaline Cartilage

For intramembranous ossification to take place, what is necessary...

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ...

Diaphysis

Production of hormones is not a function of what system....

Skeletal

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ....

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ...

Hyaline

The universal loss of mass seen in skeleton, which begins about the age 40 ....

reflects an imbalance in the bone remodeling process

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called...

Sharpey's Fibers

The term diploe refers to.....

the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ....

from the epiphysis to the diaphysis

Bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ...

growth of the epiphyseal plates

Which hormone increases oseoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the blood stream....

Parathyroid Hormone

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood....

Growth Hormone

Cranial bones develop...

Within fibrous connective tissue membranes

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ...

Trabeculae

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon is the site of ...

blood vessels and nerve fibers

In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone will cause...

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

Osteogenesis is the process of

bone remodeling and bone formation

Wolff's law is concerned with

the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

The process of bones increasing in width is called

Appositional growth

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called the periosteum. The inner layer consists mainly of ...

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

The functional unit of a compact bone is ...

The Osteon

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which cells accomplish this process.....

Osteoclasts

Which glands produce hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels..

Thyroid

It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces place on it. Which hypothesis may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling....

Electrical signals direct the remodeling process

The type of bone tissue found in the interiour of flat bones and epiphyses is called

Spongy Bone

....is a former chondroblast that has become enclosed in a lacuna in the cartilage matrix.

Chondrocytes

The type of cartilage with a relatively clear matrix, fine collagen fibers, and no conspicuous elastic fibers is called...... cartilage.

Hyaline

The process of bone formations is called.....

Ossification

A thin plate or layer of tissue, particularly those found in spongy bone is called.....

Trabeculae

The ions .... and .... needed by osteoblasts for deposition into the bone matrix come from the blood.

Calcium / Phosphate

The ..... is the layer of Reticular Connective Tissue lining the internal surfaces of a bone.

Endosteum

The expanded end of a long bone is the ....

Epiphysis

The shaft of a long bone is the ....

Diaphysis

Bones that have a broad curved shape are

Flat Bones

In order for minerals such as calcium and phosphate to be liberated into the blood streatm the process called ..... must occur.

Resorption

..... is a calcium phosphate salt deposited within the bone.

Hydroxyapatite

Bone tissue comprised of trabeculae is called ...... bone. It is also called ..... bone.

Spongy / Cancellous

The Connective Tissue bands that hold bones together at the joints are.....

Ligaments

The bone tissue called ..... bone is made up of parallel osteons that are tightly packed together and covers the surface of most bones.

Compact

The carpal bones of the wrist are classified as ...... bones.

Short

The ..... is the Connective Tissue surrounding the external surface of a bone.

Periosteum

Name the type of ossification that forms the flat bones in the skull.

Intramembraneous Ossification

During Intramembraneous Ossification osteoid tissue is developed by cells called.....

Osteoblasts

Osseous Tissue is a connective tissue with a hardened matrix that makes up organs called ....

Bones

The narrow channels connecting neighboring lacunae are called....

Canaliculi

Lacunae are located between the concentric rings of compact bone tissue that are called ....

Lamallae

Cell bodies of osteocytes are found in compact bone within tiny spaces called ....

Lacunae

Another name for the perforating canal is the ..... canal.

Volkmann

The type of growth that involves the deposition of new tissue on the surface is called ..... growth.

Appositional

Describe the effect of Calcitonin on bone cells ....

Inhibits Osteoclasts; Stimulates Osteoblasts

Describe the Metaphysis of a bone....

Transitional area between diaphysis and epiphysis

Bones that have elaborate shapes are .... bones.

Irregular

The hollow space within the diaphysis of a long bone is called the .... cavity.

Medullary

The .... ..... is found between the epiphysis and diaphysis in pre-pubertal youth and is the site of bone elongation.

Epiphyseal Plate

Name the type of opening into the surface of a bone that allows passage of blood vessels into bone tissue.

Nutrient Foramina

...... ..... is the structural material that is replaced with bone during endochondral ossification.

Hyaline Cartilage

During Enchondral Ossification, as cartilage at the primary ossification center breaks down, osteoblasts begine to form a ..... ...... around the cartilage model.

Bone Collar

In a child, red bone marrow is found in the medullary cavities of ....

Almost all Bones

Name the role of yellow bone marrow ....

Storage of Energy

Bone marrow fills the spaces between the trabeculae in .... bone.

Spongy

In spongy bone .... are lined up along the bone's lines of stress.

Trabeculae

The site of primary ossification during Endochondral Ossification is the ....

Diaphysis

A gelatinous embryonic connective tissue derived from the mesoderm, which differentiates into all permanent connective tissues and most muscle is called ....

Mesenchyme

A low blood calcium level stimulates the release of .....

Parathyroid Hormone

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called the Periosteum. The inner layer consists primarily of .....

Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live are called:

Lacunae

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows:

from the epiphysis to the diaphysis.

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

Hyaline Cartilage

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the

Osteoblast

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called:

Trabeculae

The functional unit of compact bone is:

The Osteon

The process of bones increasing in width is known as:

Appositional Growth

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of:

Fat

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the

Diaphysis

In the human body ...... percent of calcium is in the bones.

99

An increase in the length of a long bone occurs by cartalagenous ...... growth at the epiphyseal plate.

Interstitial

A spongy bone is produced by intramembraneous ossification cells called .....

Osteoclasts

..... hormone is secreted and produced by the parathyroid glands.

Parathyroid

The layer of connective tissue surrounding the cartilage is called the ....

Perichondrium

In compact bone, remnants of old osteons can be seen between complete osteons. What are the remnants called ....

Interstitial Lamallae

The type of bone tissue at the surface of bones is called ....

Compact Bone

The source of calcium and phosphate used to mineralize bone is.....

Blood

The .... is a transitional area between the shaft and cartilagenous head of a developing bone.

Metaphysis

What is the process in which the dense regular connective tissue hardens to form a bone as a result of deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals...

Mineralization

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