Chapter 9

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The joint between a tooth and an alveolar socket is called ....

gomphosis

Which joint is most movable

synovial

What covers the ends of bones in synovial joints....

articular cartilage

The function of a bursa is to

provide a fluid-filled cushion

The joint capsule

is a double layer of tissue that encloses a synovial joint

Synovial Fluid

is a think lubricating film covering the surface of a joint

RFE

first class lever
seesaw

FRE

second class lever
wheelbarrow

REF

third class lever
paddling canoe

The hyaline cartilage that attaches a rib to the sternum forms ...

a synchondrosis

A knuckle joint is

a condyloid joint

The pubic symphysis is made up of ...

fibrocartilage

The articular cartilage found in synovial joint is ...

hyaline cartilage

The crescent shaped meniscus in the knee joint is composed of ...

fibrocartilage

This part of the synovial joint encloses the cavitym, retains the synovial fluid, and is continuous with the periosteum...

fibrous capsule

The elbow is an example of what type of joint...

hinge

If you are moving your head from side to side to say no you are using what type of joint....

pivot

The movement in which one end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the other end makes a circular motion is ....

circumduction

A uniaxial joint like the elbow is capable of what movement....

flexion and extension

Which synovial joint is most moveable....

ball and socket

Rotating your forearm so that the palm faces forward or up is called ....

supination

Monaxial

moves through one plane
one degree of freedom

Biaxial

moves through two planes
two degrees of freedom

Multiaxial

moves through all planes
three degrees of freedom

How are joints functionally classified...

by degree of movement

What are the three functional classifications of joints...

synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis

Synarthrosis

immovable

Amphiarthrosis

slightly moveable

Diarthrosis

freely moveable

How are joints structurally classified...

by what is holding the bones together

Bony Joint

gap between bones, ossifies, immovable

Fibrous Joint

collagen fibers join the bones

Types of Fibrous Joints

Sutures, Syndesmosis, Gomphosis

Sutures

join cranial bones - 3 types - serrate, lap, plane

What are the three types of sutures....

serrate, lap, plane

Syndesmosis

slightly movable due to longer collagen fibers

Gomphosis

attach tooth to the bony socket

What are the structural classifications of joints...

bony joint, fibrous joint, cartilagenous joint, synovial joint

Cartilagenous Joints

Synchondrosis, Symphysis

Synchondrosis

hyaline cartilage joining bones

Symphysis

fibrocartilage

Examples of Synchondrosis

Epiphyseal Plate, Costal Cartilage - ribs to sternum

Examples of Symphysis

Pubic Symphysis, Intervertebral Discs

Pubic Symphysis

anterior joint between coxal bones

Intervertebral Discs

pads between vertebrae

Synovial Joint

joint capsule that encloses the joint- the joint cavity contains synovial fluid
has two layers
fibrous capsule, synovial membrane

Fibrous Capsule

outer layer

Synovial Membrane

secrete synovial fluid

Articular Disc

grow in from capsule and divides the capsule into two cavities

Meniscus

cartilage pads, do not extend across entire joint

Accessory Structures

tendons, ligaments, bursa

Tendons

fibrous connective tissue that connect muscle to bone

Ligaments

fibrous connective tissue that connect bone to bone

Bursa

fibrous sacs, filled with synovial fluid, pad to protect or prevent irritation where tendons or muscles over bone

Factors for degree of flexibility

articular surfaces of the bones, ligaments, action of muscles

Classes of Synovial Joints

gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joints, condyloid joint, saddle joints, ball and socket

Gliding Joint

2 flat surfaces that slide
carpals and tarsals

Hinge Joint

monaxial - one plane - elbow, knee, fingers

Pivot Joints

rotate on axis
c1 and c2 vertebrae
proximal radius/ulna

Condyloid Joint

biaxial
knuckles - between metacarpals and phalanges

Saddle Joint

base of thumb

Ball and Socket

multiaxial
shoulder, humerus, scapula/divide

Flexion

downward angle

Extension

upward angle, straighten joint

Abduction

move body part away from midline
raise arm/legs to side

Adduction

bring body part back to midline

Circumduction

stationary end with other moving in circles

Rotation

bone spins on axis

Supination

palms forward/ up

Pronation

palms back/ down

Inversion

foot, sole medial

Eversion

foot, sole lateral

Dorsiflexion

toes up

Plantar Flexion

toes down, ballerina

Elevation

raise body, shrug

Depression

move down

Protraction

anterior movement in transverse plane

Retraction

posterior movement in transverse plane

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?

it contains hyaluronic acid

When one is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane, it is called:

abduction

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are

amphiarthroses

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

syndesmosis

The following characteristics define what type of joint: presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments?

hinge joint

An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a

suture

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of:

hyperextension

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to:

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints.

Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints...this is true about what movements

gliding

Fibrous joints are classified as:

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses.

A joint that is known as a suture is found:

in the skull only

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the bones of the hand that articulate to form a saddle joint:

the trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal.

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to:

the feet

All synovial joints are .... and ....

free and moveable

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called:

bursae

act as friction-reducing structures.....

tendon sheaths

With .... exception, all bones of the body articulate with at least one other.

one

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called:

cruciate ligaments

If a patient was suffering from bursitis, this condition would be designated as inflammation of a

small sac containing fluid

Menisci refers to

semilunar cartilage pads

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is:

the radius and ulna along it's length

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

gomphosis

The shoulder joint is a good example of a ________ synovial joint.

multiaxial

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with:

hyaline cartilage

________ are cartilaginous joints.

synchondroses

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

synchondroses

The only movement allowed in a pivot joint is:

uniaxial rotation

When a ballerina points the toes, it is known as:

plantar flexion

permit essentially no movement

synarthrotic joints

The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the _______ joint

plane

Gouty arthritis is a painful condition caused by:

excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints.

Multiaxial joints of the body include:

the hip and shoulder

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

the patellar ligament

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that permits a slight degree of movement is a:

symphysis

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