How did the Native Americans on the Great Plains survive?
Hunting, particularly buffalo
What English document in 1215 began representative government & individual rights in England & later influenced the writing of the Constitution?
What movement in Europe resulted in new art, technology, and a return to classical thought (Rebirth of Roman & Greek Culture)?
What European movement led to the creation of the Protestant faith?
Began by Martin Luther
Reform the Catholic church
What European movement led to the creation of the Protestant faith?
What events all connected to eventually lead to European Exploration?
Caravel & the lateen sails
Why did Martin Luther nail his 95 Thesis to the Church door?
To make a statement against the Catholic Church & their selling of Indulgences (forgiveness of sins) & other corrupt practices; only wanted the Church to reform (change) her ways; later expelled from the Catholic Church for his ideas
Why did Christopher Columbus organize his expedition?
To find a western route to Asia in search of spices
What was the Columbian Exchange?
A complex network of the exchange of agricultural, societal and environmental interactions between the Americas, Africa & Europe; ex. Corn, animals (i.e. horses, cows etc.), fruits, diseases, etc.
When did the Columbian Exchange begin
a. After Columbus' 1st return trip to Spain from the New World
What caused England to colonize America?
Est. bases during their war with Spain To escape religious persecution To est. new markets for British goods
What year were most of the English colonies settled?
Which treaty ended the French & Indian War aka 7 Years War?
Treaty of Paris of 1763
What led to the Boston Tea Party?
The Tea Act
Samuel Adams organized the event to dump tea into the Boston Harbor
Individuals participating were known as the Sons of Liberty - not opposed using violence to get their point across
Who was Thomas Paine?
Wrote Common Sense- calling for the colonies to separate from Britain
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence
What ideas were associated with John Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau?
John Locke -believed that if a government is not working you need to change it (i.e. vote them out of office)
Montesquieu - a government divided into 3 separate parts (checks & balances)
Rousseau - Social Contract Theory (We, the people, give the government the right to exist)
Why did the Second Centennial Congress meet?
They met to organize the first National or Central Government; created the Continental Army, & appointed Washington as Commander of the newly formed army
Who was the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War?
What was the "shot heard around the world"?
. The start of the American Revolution, Battle of Lexington
Which battle started the American Revolution?
What is Valley Forge famous for
The endurance of the American Spirit during the Revolutionary War & their fight for independence
• More than 2000 of Washington's soldiers dies due to starvation & the harsh winter
• Washington makes a compelling speech to his men, which causes many to re-enlist
• Thomas Paine wrote The American Crisis - coined the phrase "These are the times that try men's souls.", referring to the problems that Washington & the New Nation were facing
What was the turning point of the American Revolution
The Battle of Saratoga
• The French entered the war on the side of the Americans (colonist)
What Treaty ended the Revolutionary War?
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Why were the Articles of Confederation unsuccessful?
It had a weak Central Government
Who was the father of the U.S. Constitution?
What were the Federalist Papers
A series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay explaining the importance of supporting the Constitution
What is the opening paragraph to the U.S. Constitution called
What are the 3 Branches of Government in the U.S Constitution and what do they provide for?
They provided for a Balance of Power and a system of checks & balances
• Judicial - interprets laws
• Executive - enforces laws
• Legislature - creates laws
What was the Great Compromise aka Connecticut Compromise
Gave the U.S. a two-house (bicameral) legislature, known as Congress
• U.S. Senate - equal representation,
o each states has 2
o elected for a 6 year term
• U.S. House of Representatives
o Based on states population
o Elected for a 2 year term
How are Senators elected?
Each states has 2 and they are elected by popular vote for a 6 year term
32. What war was fought w/ the British after the American Revolutionary War (the Second war for Independence)?
The War of 1812
What was the purpose of the Missouri Compromise of 1820?
Established a dividing line @ 36°, 30' N between Slave States & Free States
• All areas below the line = slave; above the line = free states
• Admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state
• Admitted Maine as a free state
• balanced the power of slave & free states in Congress
What is the Bill of Rights?
The 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
• Guarantees certain rights/freedoms to all U.S. Citizens
What is Federalism?
Which Supreme Court case established judicial review? Who wrote the opinion (Chief Justice)? What was judicial review?
Marbury v. Madison
• John Marshall
• Gave the Court the authority to determine whether or not a law is constitutional or not
37. What was the Compromise of 1850?
Dealt w/ the issue of slavery
• California would be admitted to the Union as a free state
• Land (Utah & New Mexico territories) acquired from Mexico (from the Mexican-American War) would did decided the issue based on the idea of Popular Sovereignty - the citizens would decide or vote as to whether or not they would allow slavery
• Border dispute - U.S. would pay Texas $10 million if Texas abandoned all claims to New Mexico east of the Rio Grande
• Slave trade (buying & selling of slaves) would be abolished/ended in D.C.; slavery, however, was still legal
• More effective Fugitive Slave Act - Federal government would give stronger enforcement of the act - dealing w/ runaway slaves
What was the main purpose of Washington's Farewell Address?
Washington Farewell address warned against
• political parties
• entangling alliances in Europe
What land purchase doubled the size of the United States?
• Authorized by Thomas Jefferson
• Purchased from France
What was the spoils system?
appointed to government jobs.
• Primary means that Andrew Jackson used in order to select his appointees during his presidency
What was the Underground Railroad?
An organized network of homes/individuals who helped escaped slaves make their way North (Canada)
Plessy v. Ferguson
a. The Supreme Court ruled segregation as legal as long as it was "Separate but Equal", therefore it was Constitutional
Who were some of the leaders who tried to abolish slavery?
The following fought for the end of slavery:
• Frederick Douglas - published North Star and other abolitionist publications
• William Llyod Gammon - published the Liberator
• Harriet Tubman - began the Underground Railroad, aka "Black Moses"
• Harriet Beecher Stowe - wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin
• Sojourner Truth - spoke out against slavery (an abolitionist) & supported the idea/concept of "The Equality of Men & Women"
44. Who was John Brown?
a. An abolitionist who was willing to use force as a means to get his message across & to end slavery
• Led a raid @ Harper's Ferry, Virginia - known as John Brown's Raid; his plan to seize the federal arsenal there & free/arm the enslaved people of the neighborhood & begin an insurrection against slaveholders
45. Dred Scott v. Sanford, what is the importance of this case?
• No slave or descendent of a slave was a U.S. citizen according to the Constitution
• Therefore, Dred Scott was not a citizen and had no legal right to bring a case into the federal court system
• Time spent on "free" soil (territory) did not make him a free man with rights guaranteed under the constitution; he was therefore governed by Missouri laws
• The 5th Amendment guarantees that a person can not be derived of their property (including slaves) without due process, therefore Congress could not deprive his slaveholder the right to "Dred Scott", his property. Result: The federal government was required by law to protect the property rights of slaveholders regardless of where the owners took their slaves.
• This court decision made the Missouri Compromise (which forbid slavery above the 36°, 30') unconstitutional
What were the main causes of the Civil War?
The main causes leading to the Civil War:
• Debate/disagreement over the legality & morality of slavery
• Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Dred Scott decision
• John Brown's Raid
• Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Abraham Lincoln's election
What was Lincoln's main reason for going to war?
a. He wanted to preserve the union (Civil War)
What did Abraham Lincoln promise in his Gettysburg Address?
A cemetery for all who died in the Civil War
What was the turning point of the Civil War?
The Battle of Gettysburg in July, 1863; lasted 3 days & was the bloodiest battle of all; last time the Confederates fought on Union soil. Marked the beginning of the end for the South.
What Amendment ended slavery?
The 13th Amendment
What were the Black Codes?
a. Laws restricting the rights of blacks in the South; ex. There could not be more than 3 blacks congregated together at any time. After the Civil War, these codes were est. in the South in order to "keep former slaves in their place" & segregate them from whites. Led to the passing of the 14th Amendment.
. What did the 13th, 19th, 15th, & 14th Amendment have in common?
• 13th frees slaves
• 14th grants citizenship to former slaves because of the Black Codes & the Dred Scott decision
• 15th granted African Americans the right to vote
• 19th gave the right to vote to women
Who formed the Women's Suffrage Association?
Elizabeth C. Stanton & Susan B. Anthony
What was the Temperance Act?
Banning the use/consumption of alcohol (Why? Would cut down on poor men using their paychecks to purchase alcohol, who would then get drunk and physically
Which Robber Baron/Captain of Industry" had libraries & a college named in his honor?
Andrew Carnegie (made a fortune in the steel industry)
• Robber Barons - people who looted and industry & gave back nothing
Who was the founder of Tuskegee Institution in 1881?
Booker T. Washington
What was Yellow Journalism?
Sensational journalism where writers exaggerated or even made up stories to attract readers
What did the annexation of Hawaii & the "Open Door Policy" in China have in common?
a. During the second half of the 1800s, there was a mad rush to gaoin ownership & control of the remaining uncolonized lands
• Why? The industrial Revolution was largely responsible for the mounting interesting colonies.
o Factories needed raw materials & new markets for their finished products U.S. strengthening its Navy & they began to add colonies to assure it had the necessary economic opportunities available in the future
• Imperialism -
Why was the Populist Party started?
It was started to obtain rights for farmers, immigrants, and women
What do windmills, invention of barb wire, & railroads all have in common?
a. Westward expansion in the United States
• Manifest Destiny - idea that the country (U.S.) must expand its boundaries west; it was God ordained
62. Explain the significance of each of the follow trails in Americans expansion West: Mormon Trail, Trail of Tears, California Trail, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail.
The following trails were the results of -
• Mormon Trail - The Mormons, whose founder is Joseph Smith, traveled westward under the leadership of Brigham Young in response to protest against their religious practices (such as the practice of polygamy); established a settlement near the Great Salt Lakes, Utah
• Trail of Tears - The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory west, thousands died. (Indian Removal Act of 1830)
• California Trail - "Forty-niners" - prospectors looking to strike it rich during the Gold Rush; these individuals headed to the California Territory causing the population to explode.
• Oregon Trail - Headed by John C. Fremont to surveyed the area in 1842 from Missouri to Oregon & map out the territory. About 12,000 settlers used the trail to reach Oregon. (Originally used by fur traders & missionaries.)
• Santa Fe Trail - 780 mile trail from Independence, Missouri to Santa, Fe Mexico; Settlers often traveled in groups (wagon trains) for safety.
What is meant by the term "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"
Slogan refers to the latitude 54°40'; the northern territory disputed between the U.S. & Britain.
Why did people migrate to the Western Coast in the U.S.?
California Gold Rush of 1849
• Called Forty-niners
What did the Monroe Doctrine do?
Closed the Western Hemisphere to European Expansion
During which war did the Rough Riders exist?
Spanish-American War aka "A Splendid Little War"
• Fought against Cuba
o U.S. gained control of Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, & the Philippines
o Sinking of the Battleship USS Maine in Havana Harbor (Cuba) resulted in the American war cry, "Remember the Maine!"
Who headed the Rough Riders
Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War
Who was the Alabamian who aided with the eradication of mosquitoes in Cuba & during the building of the Panama Canal?
What were the causes of World War I?
• Shooting of Archduke Ferdinand
• Sinking of the Lusitania
• The Zimmerman Telegram
• German aggression at sea
• Russian Revolution
Who did the U.S. declare war on during WWI?
What were U-boats?
German submarines used during WWI
What Treaty ended WWI?
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Where did the Jazz Age begin?
Who was W.C. Handy?
An Alabama native, Handy played the trumpet and was known as the "Father of the Blues" during the "Jazz Age"
Who were the Flappers?
Young women who smoked, drank prohibited alcohol, bobbed (cut) their hair & wore short skirts during the 1920s
Who was the big-time gangster who made a fortune from bootleg liquor (illegal alcohol) after the passage of the 18th Amendment?
Al Capone - headed a criminal empire in Chicago; bootlegged whiskey & ran illegal speakeasies; used violence & bribes to expand control his empire.
• 18th Amendment - Went into effect in 1920 & set off an era known as Prohibition by outlawing the sale, manufacturing, or transportation of alcohol in the U.S.; repealed by the 21st Amendment (1933)
After the Temperance Ban, how was alcohol controlled in Alabama?
The distribution & sale of alcohol (whiskey) was controlled entirely by the State of Alabama
What was the Scope's Trial based upon?
The teaching of the Theory of Evolution in public School (idea that all humans evolved from apes).
Sacco & Vanzetti Case
Sacco & Vanzetti were immigrants who were found guilty of murder & sentenced to death
• Why? Because of their political views
o Their case discovered they were anarchist - people opposed to all forms of government
o Led to an anti-foreign fever across America
What was the Red Scare?
Fear of Communism during the 1920s
Why was there an increase of electrical production in the 1920s?
The production of electricity increased due to the increase in American production (the assembly line)
What had Hoover Dam first been called?
• Provided much needed employment
• Provided a regular supply of water to the Southwest
• Produced hydroelectric, which allowed Southwestern cities to grow
What ended the Jazz Age?
The Great Depression
What caused the Great Depression?
The causes of the Great Depression:
• Stock Market Crash of 1929
o U.S. experienced a strong Bull Market (stock market prices rising)
o Investors purchased stock on margin (w/ as little as 10% down)
o When stock prices failed to rise, investors still owed the remainder of the purchase price
Many spent more than they could ever payback if the market crashed, which is did many went broke & lost everything
What was the "Dust Bowl"?
A drought (1932) which occurred during the Great Depression & forced many Mid-west farmers to either leave or loose their farms
• Many packed up & moved to California in search of jobs
o Became known as "Okies" (Oklahoma)
When did the Stock Market crash?
Black Thursday, 1929
What were the WPA & CCC a part of?
• Instituted by President Franklin Roosevelt to put Americans back to work
o WPA - Works Progress Administration
o CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps
o FDIC - Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.
o PWA - Public Works Administration
o SEC - Securities Exchange Commission, etc.
88. What did SSI provide income for?
Retired workers, unemployed, dependent children, and individuals over 65 years olds
What did the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) provide?
.Created jobs for the unemployed during the Great Depression
What was the purpose of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) FDIC?
To make sure that people would never again lose their bank savings
• Congress created the FDIC, which insured an individual's bank deposit
Why did people move from rural areas to cities?
Jobs - industry (factories) weekly paycheck
What event led to the start of WWII?
Germany's invasion of Poland
Who was Adolph Hitler?
The Nazi leader who is responsible for the Holocaust during the WWII
What was D-Day?
1. What was D-Day?
How are the Nuremburg Trials & Auschwitz connected?
Deal w/ war crimes resulting from German High Command
• Killing of 6 million Jews (the Holocaust)
What was the purpose of the "Anti-Trust" laws?
Enacted to prohibit certain monopolistic practices that were then in common in finance, industry, and trade covering corporate activities, remedies for reform and labor disputes
• Monopoly -
What was Birmingham, Alabama known for?
Coal & Steel
• Led to the development of the railroad into rural Alabama
What was Mobile, Alabama known for?
What was Montgomery, Alabama known for?
1st Capital of the Confederacy & Birthplace of the Civil Rights Movement
When did Alabama become a state?
What does it the term habeas corpus mean?
a. "You have the person."
• A court order directing the authorities to bring the prisoner to court & to explain why he or she is being held (It prevents unreasonable arrest & indefinite imprisonments