Studying the positions of the stars and planets in the belief that they influence the course of human affairs and natural occurrences on earth.
the school of psychology, founded by John Watson, that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behavior
specialist who tries to explain behavior in terms of biological factors, such as electrical and chemical activities in the nervous system, the effects of drugs and hormones, genetics, and evolutionary pressures
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances
Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental psychologists
Psychologist who study behavioral similarities and differences among animal species
The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables
a nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances
a mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
the tendency of those being surveyed to provide responses that will please and/or not offend the interviewer, moderator, or other participants
The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs.
the idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known
Investigate how our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during the long history of humankind.
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause-and-effect relationships
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments.
a school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals.
the variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposefully manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected
the tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
False system that claims that lines on hands reveal personality traits and predict the future.
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
Changes in behavior due to a participant's expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect.
any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
Psychiatric social worker
a mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics and hospitals
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
a mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis
Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives (often sexual) that influence behaviors
a procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group
a small, randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole population
an unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory
An empirical investigation structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion (observations can be reliably confirmed by multiple observers)
Total subjective perception of one's body and personality (another term for self-concept).
Self fulfilling prophecy
an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior and how each of us is affected by other people
the school of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements
contents of the mind that are beyond awareness, especially impulses and desires not directly known to a person
The tendency to believe generally positive or flattering descriptions of oneself.
originated with Sigmund Freud, who emphasized unconscious motivations and conflicts, and the importance of early childhood experiences.
early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind
William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors
Study of human conciens cant be broken down into element because study of the mind as a whole is different than the sum of the parts.
Creator: Max Wertheimer
Focuses on positive human qualities, capacity for self-actualization, free will. Developed in responce to Behaviorists & Psychodynamic approaches (Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow)
The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science and (2) emphasizes observabable behavior that can be objectively measured. Emerged from the pioneering work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, and B.F. Skinner.
Wilhelm Wundt's method of having trained observers report on their conscious, moment-to-moment reactions
According to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
according to Abraham Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential