|*What were the earliest precursors to ballet||lavish entertainments given in the courts of renaissance Italy.|
|details about these early performances|| the dances were performed between courses of a banquet and the action was closely related to the menu.|
ex:: the story of Jason and the Golden Fleece preceded the roast lamb.
|The first complete ballet score was...||Le Ballet Comique de Reine (The queen's ballet comedy) in 1581|
|Le Ballet Comique de Reine was staged by...||Balthazar de beaujoyeux at the Court of Queen Catherine de M dicis.|
|French court ballets consisted of...|| dance scenes linked by a minimum of plot and were designed principally for the entertainment of the aristocracy.|
rich costumes, scenery and elaborate stage effects.
|The court ballet reached its peak during...||the reign of Louis XIV (1643-1715) of Louis XIV whose nickname "The Sun King" was derived from his role as Apollo in ballet Royale de la Nuit.|
|Many of the ballets presented in Louis XIV court were created by...||*Italian-French composer Jean Baptiste Lully and French choreographer Pierre Beauchamp|
|Pierre Beauchamp is said to have...||*defined the five positions of the feet.|
|Early Professional Ballet||...|
|1661 Louis XIV established...||the Acad mie Royale de Danse, a professional organization for dancing masters.|
|At first all dancers were...||men, who wore masks to portray women in some roles.|
|The first female dancers to perform professionally in a theater production appeared in...||1681 in a ballet called Le Trimphe de l'Amour (The Triumph of Love)|
|Raoul Feuillet||wrote Chor graphie in 1700, which included many steps and positions recognizable today.|
|Op ra ballet||developed was developed during Early Professional Ballet, and it placed equal emphasis on signed and dancing.|
|18th century ballet||...|
|18th century dancers were encumbered by...||masks, wigs, large headdresses, heeled shoes, corsets and hoopskirts|
|Marie Camargo||*french dancer who shortened her skirts and adopted heelless slippers to display her jumps and beats|
|Marie Sall||*Marie Camargo's rival. She also broke with custom when she discarded her corset and put on Greek robes to dance in her own ballet, Pymalion (1743)|
|Anne Heinel||*German-born, first femaile dancer to do double pirouettes.|
|John Weaver||eliminated words and tried to convey dramatic action through dance and pantomime|
|Jean Georges Noverre|| frenchman who advised using movement that was natural and easily understood and emphasized that all the elements of ballet should work in harmony to express the ballet's theme.|
Most famous 18th century advocate of the dramatic ballet.
|19th Century Ballet||...|
|toe dancing began to develop, although...|| dancers balanced on their toes only for a moment or two.|
blocked toe shoes had not yet been invented.
|the romantic ballet period...||introduced in Paris in 1832 with the ballet La Sylphide.|
|Marie Taglioni||danced the lead role of Sylphide and danced the part on pointe|
|Ly Sylphide inspired...||many changes in the ballets of the time in theme, style, technique and costume.|
|Ly Sylphide's succesor||Giselle; (1891) which also contrasted the human and supernatural worlds.|
|dominated the romantic ballet||women.|
|Taglioni||danced in Russia|
|Fanny Elssler|| danced in Russia, as well as the United States.|
Helped produce US dancers Augusta Maywood and Mary Ann Lee (Both from Philadelphia, pennsylvania)
|Second half of the 18th century||*gradual shift of ballet from France to Russia.|
|Marius Petipa||*Frenchman who became the chief choreographer of the Imperial Russian Ballet. He created 57 new ballets and 34 operas.|
|Marius Petipa's best works||The Sleeping Beauty (1890) and Swan Lake; which were both set to commissioned scores by Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky.|
|Invention of the short skirt "tutu"||enabled audiences to see the advances in technique|
|20th Century Ballet||...|
|Michael Fokine||called for greater expressiveness and more authenticity in choreography, scenery, and costume|
|Sergei Diaghilev||Russian impresario who organized the ballet Russes which opened in Paris in 1909 and won immediate success|
|The Ballets Russes||became synonymous with novelty and excitement. Fokine choreographed for this company|
|1912||Diaghilev replaced Folkine with Vaslav Nijinsky|
|Vaslav Nijinsky|| star dancer of Diaghilev's company.|
his choreography contradicted classical positions-- steps and gestures were turned in instead of turned out.
He produced Rite of Spring before falling out with Diaghilev.
|Diagheliev commissioned many...||Western Europeans including Russian-born American George Balanchine.|
|offshoots of the Ballet Russes||revitalized ballet all over the world.|
|Anna Pavlova|| exposed ballet to America.|
worked with Diagheilev.
Toured in America until 1925 and was famous for her solo in Folkine's The Dying Swan.
|Fokine continued to work with...||many companies including the future America Balet Theatre.|
|Diaghilev died in..||1929 and his company members dispersed throughout the world.|
|San Francisco Ballet||first ballet company permanently located in America; under Diaghilev's dancer Adolph Boom.|
|George Balanchine||came to America in 1930 to train dancers at the School of American Ballet.|
|Valois|| another one of Diaghilev's dancers.|
formed a company in England tht became the Royal Ballet in 1957. (This company created Romeo and Juliet).
|In Russia in 20th century...||the Bolshi Balet and Kirov remained strong classical traditions.|
|Later 20th Century to Present Time.||...|
|1940s||two great American ballet companies wre founded; American Ballet Theatre and the New york City Ballet.|
|Mikhail Baryshinikov||famous russian dancer who served as director of the American Ballet Theatre from 1980 to 1989|
|mid 1960s||beginning here, ballet underwent an enormous upsurge in popularity and started to show influence of a younger audience in both themes and style|
|Todays ballet offers...||great variety of new works and restaging older works.|
|todays dancers...||usually train in ballet, modern, and jazz.|
|Famous Ballet Dancers||...|
|resident choreographer of The Royal Ballet in the 1930s. He created the ballet version of Cinderella and was known to often play one of the ugly stepsisters.||Frederick Ashton|
|influenced by modern and jazz by using turned-in positions and synocopated movement. Famous for the making the ballet The Nutcracker a tradition during the Christmas season in the US||George Balanchine|
|known as one of the greatest cancers of the 20th century. He performed with the New York City ballet and American Balet Theatre. His most famous film works include The Nutcracker and White Knights.||Mikhail Baryshinikov|
|known for shortening her ballet skirt in order to show her intricate footwork||Marie Camargo|
|formed the Joffrey Ballet||Robert Joffrey|
|joined the NYC Ballet by invitation from George Balanchine at age 15. She is most famous for partnering with Baryshinikov in The Nutcracker||Gelsey Kirkland|
|known for her role as the Dying Swan and for revamping the pointe show due to her extremely curved arches.||Anna Pavlova|