an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
the Freudian technique in which the person is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind as a means of exploring the unconscious
the treatment of psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret the tensions within a patient's unconscious
the repository of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. To contemporary psychologists, it is a level of information processing we are unaware of.
the unconscious system of personality supplying psychic energy consisting of basic sexual and aggressive drives.
the conscious division of personality attempting to mediate between the demands of the id, superego, and reality.
the division of personality containing the conscience and develops by incorporating the perceived moral standards of society.
developmental stages children pass through when the id's pleasure-seeking energies are focused on different erogenous zones
a boy's sexual attraction to his mother and resentment of the father.
the child's superego develops and incorporates the parent's values; crucial to resolve the Oedipus complex and development of gender identity
development stops due to unresolved conflicts in an immature psychosexual stage
the ego's methods of unconsciously protecting itself against anxiety by distortin reality
unconscious exclusion of anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from the conscous mind.
when faced with anxiety, a person reverts to a less mature pattern of behavior
the ego converts unacceptable impulses into their opposites
unconsciously attributing one's own unacceptable feelings, attitudes, or desires to others
devising self-justifying but incorrect reasons for one's behavior
a sexual or aggressive impulse is shifted to a more acceptable object other than the one that originally aroused the impulse
ambiguous stimuli that people supposedly project their own inner feelings
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
ambiguous pictures that people are asked to make up stories
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test; ten inkblots people are asked to interpret
inherited unconscious shared by all people derived from our ancestors' universal experiences
the process of fulfilling one's potential and becoming spontaneous, loving, creative, and self-accepting; at the top of Maslow's need hierarchy, active after the more basic needs have been met
unconditional positive regard
an attitude of total acceptance and one of the three conditions essential to a "growth-promoting" climate
one's personal awareness of "who I am" central to personality; life happiness is affected by whether it is positive or negative
people's characteristic patterns of behavior
questionnaires used to assess personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely used personality scale consisting of ten clinical scales
empirically derived test
developed by testing many items to see which best distinguish between groups of interest
behavior is the result of interactions between people and their situations
the interaction between personality and environmental factors
a person's sense of controlling the environment
external locus of control
the perception that one's fate is determined by forces not under personal control
internal locus of control
perception that, to a great extent, one controls one's own destiny
passive resignation and perceived lack of control that a person or animal develops from repeated exposure to inescapable aversive events
the scientific study of optimal human functioning focusing on subjective well-being and character virtues such as creativity and compassion, and healthy families and neighborhoods
the tendency of people to overestimate the extent to which others are noticing and evaluating them
an individual's sense of self-worth
the tendency to perceive oneself favorably
a cultural emphasis on personal goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification
a cultural emphasis on the goals of one's group and defining one's identity accordingly
our deeply rooted fear of death causes us to act in ways that enhance our self-esteem and to adhere more strongly to worldviews that provide answers to questions about the meaning of life