Chapter 25-26

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Growth in American economy in 1920s- Which parts ?

Consumer goods- Automobiles, appliances, furniture, and clothing

Growth in American economy in 1920s- Weaknesses ?

Overcapitalized Railroads, Suffering famers because of over production from WWI, use of cotton textile declined, new england mills moved south

Automobile

Nation's largest industry in the 1920s. 26 million were on the road. 1928 the Ford Model A came out.

National Women's Party 1920s

Led by Alice Paul, they lobbied for full equality for women under the law. In 1923 congress got introduced to the equal rights amendment. ERA failed.

Family in the 1920s

Families because smaller due to birth control. More married women took jobs outside of home.

Cultural Development in the 1920s

Speakeasies, bootleggers, and bathtub gin. Sports became popular. Sex became popular and victorian standards began to crumble

Prominent Writers

F. Scott Fitzgerald, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, H.L Mecken

Harlem Renaissance

An African American cultural, literacy, and artistic movement centered in Harlem, NY, int he 1920s. Harlem was the largest black community in the word out side of africa. Considered the cultural capital of African Americans

Red Scare

A wave of anticommunist, anti foreign, and anti labor hysteria that swept over America at the end of WWI. It resulted in the deportation of many alien residents and the violation of the civil liberties of many of its victims

19th Amendement

women's right to vote

Prohibition

The ban of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the U.S. The 18th amendment, adopted in 1919 established prohibition. It was repealed by the 21st amendment in 1933

Volstead Act

(1920) Implemented prohibition, banned most commercial production and distribution of beverages containing more than one-hald of 1 percent of alcohol by volume

Sacco and Vanzetti

Two Italian Aliens in Massachusetts that were arrested in may 1920 for a payroll robbery and murder. They died in the electric chair on August 23, 1927. Their fate symbolized the bigotry and intolerance that lasted through the 1920s. Sacco was a shoe maker and Vanzetti was a fish petler

Opportunity

a magazine by the Urban League during the Harlem Renaissance, it discussed "scholarly studies of racial issues including black nationalism and emigration to Africa. Published but the Urban League

Marcus Garvey

Wanted black nationalism and independence black entrepreneurship

W.E.B DuBois

the editor of the newspaper called crisis, became the intellectual voice of the black community developing in New York City's Harlem

Booker T. Washington

Wanted to work from the bottom up. He had a more gradualist approach. He was older and he was the first African American to be invited to the White House by Teddy Roosevelt

James Weldon Johnson

a professor of literature at Fisk University, published fifty years and other poems. The title commented on the half century suffering that has followed the emancipation proclamation

KKK of the 1920s

On Stone Mountain( Georgia, 1915) William J. Simmons founded the modern clan. Only Native born, white , gentile, Americans are permitted to join the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. There was a Women's order, Junior order for boys, and a Tri-K Klub for girls. Also a club for foreign born protestants called a Krusaders affiliate

Immigration Legislation of 1920s

In 1921, Congress passed an emergency immigration act which restricted immigration from europe to 3 percent. The National Origins Quota Act limited immigration from europe and banned all asians.=

John Scopes

Scopes Trial or Monkey Trial. 1924 trial was a contest between modern liberalism and religious fundamentalism. John T. Scopes was on trial for teaching Darwinian evolution in defiance of a Tennessee state law. He was found guilty and finned $ 100

Democratic Party in the 1920s

Laid groundwork for future by winning over millions of new voters, especially among the ethnic groups in the cities

Harding

GOP. Reflected both the virtues and blemishes of small-town america. His administration was sabotaged

Coolidge

Became president after Harding's death in 1923

Hoover

Became president after Coolidge in 1927. He epitomized the American myth of the self made man. He sought cooperation between government and business

Fordney- McCumber Act

Emergency tariff in 1921, Raised tariffs to protect factories and farms

Andrew Mellon

Secretary of State who worked hard to achieve a similar return to normalcy in taxation. Mellon pressed for repealing an excess profits tax on corporations and slashing personal rates on the very rich

Unemployment in the Great Depression

at 25 % and Gross national profit fell 65 %

Hoover and the depression

Depressions most prominent victim. He blamed the depression on foreign causes especially unstable european banks. He called on private charities and local governments to help feed and clothe those in need

Bonus Army

In June 1932, a group of 20 thousand WWI veterans marched on Washington DC to demand immediate payments of their adjusted compensation bonuses voted by Congress in 1924. Congress rejected their demands, and president hoover, feating that their ranks were infested with criminals and radicals, had he bonus army forcibly removed from their encampment

Election of 1932

Democrat FDR won and beat Republican Hoover

FDR and his first 100 days

New Deal, Saving the nation's bank. Roosevelt send 15 major requests to congress and received back 15 pieces of legislation. A few created agencies that became part of American Life

First New Deal vs. Second New Deal

the first New Deal focused on economic recovery while the second New Deal emphasized social justice.

National Recovery Administration ( NRA )

A Keystone of the early New Deal, this federal agency was created in 1933 to promote economic recovery and revive industry during the Great Depression. It permitted manufacturers to establish industrywide codes of " Fair businesses practices" setting prices and production levels. It also provided for minimum wages and maximum working hours for labor and guaranteed labor the right to organize and bargain collectively (7a)

Agricultural Adjustment Administration ( AAA )

Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the new deal, this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying famers subsidies to take land out of production. Such efforts are often aimed at improving employment or educational opportunities for women and minorities

Works Progress Administration ( WPA )

Congress created this new deal agency in 1935 to provide work relief for the unemployed. Federal works projects included building roads, bridges, and schools;the WPA also funded projects for artists, writers, and young people

Civilian Conservation Corps ( CCC )

One of the most popular New Deal programs, the CCC was created by congress to provide young men between ages 18 to 25 with government jobs in reforestation and other conservation projects. It eventually employed over three hundred thousand

Wagner's Act

The 1935 Wagner Act, formally known as the National Labor Relations Act, created the National Labor Relations Board to supervise union elections and designate wining unions as official bargaining agents. The board could also issue cease-and-desist orders to employers who dealt unfair with their workers

Fair Labor Standards Act

(1938). This act provided for a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour by 1940 and a standard workweek of forty hours, with time and a half for overtime

Congress of Industrial Organizations ( CIO )

( 1935) Headed by John L. Lewis. Determined to spread the benefits of unions throughout industry. Unskilled laborers and women and blacks benefited from this

FDR's critics

Father Charles Coughlin National Union for Social Justice, called the New Deal the "pagan deal"; Francis Townsend Townsend Plan provided for the elderly, and Huey Long "Share the Wealth" movement, guaranteed a $5,000 home and an annual income of $2,500.

General Motors

general motors in 1936 was the flint strike where they all sat down in the factory and refused to get up until they recognized their union

African American rights during the New Deal

the payments blacks received were less. the NRA codes permitted lower wage scales. The AAA led to the eviction of thousands of negro tenants and scrappers. NRA=negro robbed again

Frances Perkins

the secretary of labor, became the first woman cabinet member

Court Packing Scheme

Concerned that the conservative supreme country might declare all his new deal programs unconstitutional, president FDR asked congress to allow him to appoint additional justices to the court. both congress and the public rejected this court packing scheme and it was defeated

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