Ch. 27 APWH Ray

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Ray, Mrs. Ray, Midlothian, 27, Chapter, Chapter 27, Ch. 27, Ch 27, Mary Ray, APWH, AP World History, Advanced Placement World History

Holy Alliance

alliance between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of the established order; formed by the most conservative monarchies of Europe during the Congress of Vienna.

Decembrist rising

unsuccessful 1825 political revolt in Russia by mid-level army officers advocating reforms.

Crimean War (1854 -1856)

began with a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire; France and Britain joined on the Ottoman side; resulted in a Russian defeat because of Western industrial might; led to Russian reforms under Alexander II.

Emancipation of the serfs

Alexander II in 1861 ended serfdom in Russia; serfs did not obtain political rights and had to pay the aristocracy for lands gained.

zemstvoes

local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.

Trans-Siberian railroad

constructed during the 1870s and 1880s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; increased the Russian role in Asia.

Count Witte

Russian minister of finance (1892 -1903); economic modernizer responsible for high tariffs, improved banking system; encouraged Western investment in industry.

intelligentsia

Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.

anarchists

political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first large terrorist movement.

Lenin (Vladimir Ilych Ulyanov)

Russian Marxist leader; insisted on the importance of disciplined revolutionary cells.

Bolsheviks

literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.

Russian Revolution of 1905

defeat by Japan resulted marked by strikes by urban workers and insurrections among the peasantry; resulted in temporary reforms.

Duma

Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.

Stolypin reforms

Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a market- oriented peasantry.

kulaks

agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.

terakoya

commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.

Dutch Studies

studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18th century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.

Matthew Perry

American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.

Meiji Restoration

power of the emperor restored with Emperor Mutsuhito in 1868; took name of Meiji, the Enlightened One; ended shogunate and began a reform period.

Diet

Japanese parliament established as part of the constitution of 1889; able to advise government but not control it.

zaibatsu

huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895): fought in Korea between Japan and Qing China; Japanese victory demonstrated its arrival as new industrial power.

"yellow peril"

Western term for perceived threat from Japanese imperialism.

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