Bolivar was basically the George Washington of South America, who envisioned a United South America, but there were too many divisions for that to come true. He helped continue the idealogy of throwing off colonial powers, however.
Women's rights were beginning to be more widely wanted, and women like Mary Wollstencraft especially wanted more rights of women. They called for basically Natural Rights, but also to women though.Women often compared their situations to that of slaves, they believed that no sense of inferiority should exist, and if you cannot own slaves then you should not be able to own women.
Declaration of Sentiments
At Seneca Falls in 1848, this document was written. It was basically a female take on the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen. It is a list of supports for their arguments and then grievances against men, just like the Declaration if Independence.
It is the concept and belief that people belong to a certain nation and take pride in that nation. Sort of like extreme patriotism. Idea that a certain group of people belong together in one political entity, but is fairly new and mainly began in the 19th century.
It is a group of people with something in common, usually has a territory but does not always. Examples could be Gypsies, Jews, Kurds, and even some Native Americans.
This is a country that is home to a nation, primarily developed in the 19th century, but has boundaries/borders. Generally either geographical or artificial political constructions.
This is an anti-Jewish idealogy and philosophy, sort of stemming from nationalism since Jews were a minority.
organized persecution of an ethnic group (especially Jews)
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
Greeks revolutionized and in 1830 they formed their first main nationalist government.
Revolutions of 1848
They were largely founded on nationalism, just the sake of wanted your own country. This even involved the unification of Germany
The worldwide revolution which involved many countries becoming more industrialized. It resulted in altered relationships between workers and their labors, and this especially occurred in Great Britain and the US.
process of transformation from an agrarian society to an industrial one, generally through technology and manufacturing.Also, the primary changes were:
1) Energy: Steam Engines, Coal Mining, and even Electric Light bulbs are discovered/invented.
2) Manufacturing: the pace of inventions drastically changed/increased, for example: spinning jenny(1768) and the power loom (1787).
3) Transportation: steamboats, trains, automobiles, etc. Goods can now travels faster and more reliably.
Results of Industrialization
Industrialization resulted in the creation of new class, like the industrial middle class (bourgeoisie) and the urban working class (proletariat). Working conditions are also drastically altered since time/light are no longer real issues.
*monopolies/trust/cartels* came to power,
there was *drastic environmental change* due to the toxic byproducts,
*technological innovation* helped speed up pace of change,
*improved transportation* came about as in a few decades we went from horse-drawn carriage to space shuttle,
there were *inexpensive manufactured goods*, as there was cheaper price and quality,
there was a *large population growth* due to better medicine, cheaper food, etc.
but the *standard of living and cost of living* increased as there were more and more products, though some were cheaper, that we had to have.
A large piece of land sold to the United States in the mid 1800s by France to help pay for France's war debt, nearly doubles the size of the United States
Trail of Tears
In the 1830s, Cherokee Indians were forced to walk some 800 miles, 1000s end up dying in this process.
This went from 1846-1848 and was from people in Texas wanting the United States to start a war with Mexico so that Texas could be annexed into the United States. The United States ended up winning almost half of Mexico, which was just in time for the Gold Rush.
U.S. Civil War
This went from 1861-1865 and was initially over the issue of sovereignty, whether it should be with the states or the federal government, but the war ended up being over slavery as well. Ultimately, the Union (North) won the war and forced the Confederacy (South) to rejoin the Union, thus again being the United States of America.
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
He was a Mexican dictator from 1876-1911, but he was cruel and the peasantry was very poor because of that.
The Mexican Revolution
From 1911-1920 the middle and working class Mexicans came together and wanted to overthrow Diaz. It was sort of multi-sided though as many armies wanted the power. It did lead to Mexico's Independence though.
Emiliano Zapata and "Pancho" Villa
They were Mexican revolutionary leaders who wanted legal rights and land reform for peasants and indigenous people.
Industrialization in the Americas
In the US and Canada British investment greatly aids industrialization, and massive immigration helps economic development. In the Latin Americas, however, the lack of foreign investment due to both the existence of small markets in those countries and due to goverment corruption/political instability greatly hindered industrialization. So, these countries mainly focused on exporting raw materials.
They were a group of Turks living in Paris who argued for Turkish nationalism and wanted a constitutional government for the Turks, though this government would be favored by the intellectual elite. They were secular nationalists, and did end up forcing the sultan to abdicate his throne, but due to the mass cultural and linguistic diversity they could not unite the whole empire around being Turkish.
This occurred from 1839-1842 directly stemmed from a trade imbalance in China. The British East India Trading Company had started selling opium poppies in China, which got Chinese people addicted, which is really bad for any government. China outlawed the selling of it, Britain started and won the war, and thus won some Chinese land and naval ports.
Unequal Treaties (China)
These were the treaties forced upon China by the British as a result of the Opium War, and resulted in China giving up a lot of its land and naval ports, especially including Hong Kong.
This occurred in the years 1850-1864 and was basically a Chinese Civil War. There was a massive peasant revolt where the peasants wanted the destruction of the Qing Dynasty, communal propery, and free public educaiton. The peasants were defeated by the military, some 100,000 were executed, but they weakened the Qing Dynasty so much that it never fully recovered.
Spheres of Influence (China)
By 1895 China was largely controlled by European powers, as much of its former land belonged to foreign powers, who had considerable influence on even more land.
This was a rebellion by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists against the "foreign devils." Though, they were soundly defeated and it was rather unsuccessful.
In 1853 Mathew Perry sails his US ship to Tokyo and forces them to open trade with the US.
There was a civil war in Japan, but in 1868 the Meiji Emperor retook power, and he focused on prosperity, strength, and westernization. After him, he was very conservative as only 5% of men could vote, but he promoted the "learn and return" system where male students studied abroad and then came back and shared their knowledge. This resulted in a rapid transformation to a modernized industrial state within one generation and made Japan the most powerful country in Asia. Japanese victory in Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) also enabled Japanese imperialism.
Imperialism is, by definition, is an unequal system in which a more powerful country controls a less powerful one. It can be:
*political*: when taking over territory or through puppet leaders.
*economical*: which generally through a tribute or through control of trade
*cultural*: when the more dominant culture spreads, like us enforcing the assimilation of Native Americans.
Reasons for Imperialism
1) Economic: this is generally the most significant reason, as control of resources directly relates to Industrial Revolution. The need for raw materials and markets were growing, and thus new colonies were needed. Capitalism also played a part in this as governments tend to follow companies, like the East India Trading Company.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.This idea was mentioned in Herbert Spencer's "Social Statics", where people were allowed to die if they were not "fit" and survival of the fittest happened, which the rich especially liked. It also went hand-in-hand with Scientific Racism.
This was a teaching that, scientifically, whites are superior, though it was a pseudoscience.
It was the main reason for French Imperialism.
"The White Man's Burden"
It was a poem by Rudyard Kipling, and talked about the burden of white man to go civilize other countries.
Suez Canal and Panama Canal
They were two canals that drastically increased transportation opportunities, as Panama Canal allowed travel through the Americas, and the Suez Canal allowed people to go from Europe to Asia much faster.
British East India Company
This company was in place during the Moghal Empire, which had let the British come and set up shop there. The company, however, became "too big to fail", and so when it was threatened British military came to support it. Through them, the company started gaining an army of sepoys, or Indian peasants, and gained power.
The sepoys ended up revolting, and so the British military was called in to save them, and ended up conquering India for the company.
Scramble for Africa
French: northwest Africa (including Algeria)
British: Egypt, South Africa, Gold Coast (Abina)
Belgians: Congo (Central Africa)
Portuguese: West Africa (Angola) and East Africa (Mozambique)
Berlin West Africa Conference
At this conference 14 European countries came together to try and decide how to peacefully divide up Africa, even though there were no African representatives. They settled that any country can take any "unoccupied" country in Africa, which simply meant no European country, not "uninhabited."
1) Technology: Europe began to quickly outpace Africa technology-wise, transportation-wise, and weapon-wise.
2) Military: for example, at the Battle of Ondurman (Nile), in 5 hours 360 British and 11000 Sudanese died, when before there wasn't the technology to kill so many so fast with so few people.
3) Communication: Communication advances allowed control of global empires.
And, Europeans just took maps and stuck pins in wherever there weren't another country.
Mainly took over nearby countries, but was due to Meiji Restoration.
The US did not technically believe in imperialising people just for the fun of it, so it only imperialized Hawaii and a few other places, but generally that was because companies were already in place there.
Hawaii (1898) because companies stage a coup and deposed the king.
Spanish-American War (1898-1899): US aquires Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and a Phillipines, somewhat accidentally, though released some but ended up keeping Guantanamo Bay in Cuba.
Long-term causes of World War I
Nationalism and Unification of Germany, Imperialism and Militarism, and Entangling Alliances.
Unification of Germany
During the 1860s, Otto von Bismarck causes wars to unify Germany, and makes a new German federation under Prussia, but excludes Austria.
Otto von Bismark
Prussian prime minister, he led the unification of Germany and the creation of the German empire.
"Blood and Iron" speech
His speech basically said that decisions/speeches won't help the German future, but that their future prosperity comes from "iron and blood."
This war was started with France to try and unify Germany more, and resulted in the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine. The French lose, but they begin for WW1.
Alfred von Tirpitz
He was a naval admiral in Germany, and on Germany's quest to be a "Great Power" he believed it would come through a strong Navy, and thus began the naval arms race between Germany and Britain.
"A Place in the Sun" Speech
This was made by Kaiser Wilhelm II, and basically said that Germany will grow, and the sun will not set on Germany.
This was the Central Powers, and was formed in 1882 between Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary.
This formed in 1907 between France, Russia, and Great Britain.
Short-term causes of World War I
Disunity in Austro-Hungarian Empire, Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, The July Crisis of 1914, and the Invasion of Belgium.
On June 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist in the Black Hand, killed this archduke of Austria.
Assassin of Ferdinand, Member of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary
July Crisis of 1914
July 6: Germany backs Austria
July 20: Russia backs France and Serbia
July 23: Austria issues ultimatum to Serbia
July 28: Austria and Germany declare war on the Allies.
Completed in 1906, mainly involved taking over France first by always fighting with full power.
Invasion of Belgium
The quickest path to France was through Belgium, but they were neutral, which enraged many people when Germany marched through them.