Aztec emperor defeated and killed by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortes.
The natives or inhabitants of the Iberian peninsula, where Spain and Portugal are located. They conquered much of Latin America between 1450 and 1750. During this time the Catholics kicked the Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula in the Reconquista.
Huge farms that required a large labor force to grow crops
A grant of authority over a population of Natives in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. (479)
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
a Native American people of the Caribbean islands - the first group encountered by Columbus and his men when they reached the Americas
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.
Bartolome de Las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
a Spanish conquistador who landed on the east coast of what we now know as Mexico in 1519; he was looking for gold and glory, became friends with the Aztec emperor and later killed him and many Aztec nobels
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Ruler of the Kongo kingdom (1507-1543); converted to Christianity and was renamed Alfonso I; his efforts to integrate Portuguese and African ways foundered because of the slave trade.
Spanish colony in North America including Mexico, Central America, the southwest United States, and many of the Carribean islands from the 1500s to the 1800s After Defeat of Aztecs
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
capital and largest city and economic center of Peru- ONce capital of Incan Empire
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
Spanish chief executives in the New World who carried out the wishes of the monarch
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
the labor tribute demanded by the Inca state that required all able-bodied citizens to work for the state a certain number of days every year.
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Todesillas
Council of the Indies
Pedro Alvarez Cabal
Rio de Janeiro
amigos de pais
Marquis of Pombal
Philip of Anjou
War of Spanish Succession
Jose de Galvez
Seven Years' War