Chapter 35 Biology 1202

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One major advantage of using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system for studies of plant form and funciton is it's
a. fast generation time
b. exceptionally large genome
c. large seeds
d. high tolerance to stress
e. high mutation rate

a. fast generation time

Studies using arabidopsis thaliana have led to important advances in all of the following except
a. gene mapping
b. impact of point mutations on gene function
c. gene expression during plant
d. evolutionary history of plants
e. how genes potentially interact with other genes

d. evolutionary history of plants

number of genes in a species' genome is not necessarily a good indicator of biological complexity because
A) most genes are never turned on. B) many genes are repeats.
C) this does not take into account the alternative splicing of pre-mRNA.
D) this does not take into account mRNA-mRNA interactions.
E) this does not take into account protein-mRNA interactions.

C. This does not take into acount mRNA-mRNA interactions

4) Choose the option that best describes the relationship between the cell wall thickness of parenchyma cells versus sclerenchyma cells.
A) The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thinner than those of sclerenchyma cells.
B) The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thicker than those of schlerenchyma cells.
C) The cell walls of both types of cells are roughly equal.
D) The thickness of the cell walls for both types of cells is too variable for a comparison to be made.

A) The cell walls of parenchyma cells are thinner than those of sclerenchyma cells.

Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
A) root hair_dermal tissue
B) palisade parenchyma_ground tissue
C) guard cell_dermal tissue
D) companion cell_ground tissue
E) tracheid_vascular tissue

d. companion cell - ground tissue

6) Which of the following is derived from the ground tissue system?
A) root hair
B) cuticle
C) periderm
D) pith
E) phloem

d. pith

7) Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) taproots
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem

b root hairs

8) Land plants are composed of all of the following tissue types except
A) mesodermal.
B) epidermal.
C) meristematic.
D) vascular.
E) ground tissue.

a. mesodermal

9) Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) vessel elements.
B) sieve cells.
C) tracheids.
D) companion cells.
E) cambium cells.

e. cambium cells

10) When you eat Brussels sprouts, what are you eating?
A) immature flowers
B) large axillary buds
C) petioles
D) storage leaves
E) storage roots

b large axillary buds

11) Which cells are no longer capable of carrying out the process of DNA transcription?
A) tracheids
B) mature mesophyll cells
C) companion cells
D) meristematic cells
E) glandular cells

a. tracheids

12) ________ is to xylem as ________ is to phloem.
A) Sclerenchyma cell; collenchyma cell
B) Apical meristem; vascular cambium
C) Vessel element; sieve-tube member
D) Cortex; pith
E) Vascular cambium; cork cambium

c. vessel element; sieve-tube member

13) CO2 enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the
A) cuticle.
B) epidermal trichomes.
C) stoma.
D) phloem.
E) walls of guard cells.

c. stoma

14) Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

e. sieve-tube elements

15) Which of the following have unevenly thickened primary walls that support young, growing parts of the plant?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

b. collenchyma cells

16) Which of the following are most responsible for supporting mature, nongrowing parts of the plant?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) trichomes
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

sieve-tube elements

17) The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the
A) cortex.
B) stele.
C) endodermis.
D) periderm.
E) pith.

b. stele

18) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that
A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.
B) root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not.
C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots.
D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.
E) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not

vascular tissue

19) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are they?
A) parenchyma
B) xylem
C) endodermis
D) collenchyma
E) sclerenchyma

a. parenchyma

20) Compared to most animals, the growth of most plants is best described as
A) perennial.
B) weedy.
C) indeterminate.
D) derivative.
E) primary.

c. derivative

21) A vessel element would likely lose its protoplast in which section of a root?
A) zone of cell division
B) zone of elongation
C) zone of maturation
D) root cap
E) apical meristem

c. zone of maturation

22) Gas exchange, which is necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue?
A) epidermis
B) palisade mesophyll
C) spongy mesophyll
D) vascular tissue
E) bundle sheath

c. spongy mesophyll

23) Which of the following best describes advantages conferred by compound leaves versus simple leaves?
A) There's a greater chance of capturing photons in intermittently shady areas.
B) There is less chance of damage in high-wind areas.
C) There's a reduced chance of herbivory.
D) There is less surface area for water loss.
E) There's a greater chance of capturing photons in intermittently shady areas and less chance of damage in high-wind areas.

e. there's a greater chance of capturing photons in intermittently shady areas and less chance of damage in high wind areas

24) Water is most likely to enter a mesophyll cell
A) as a gas.
B) as a liquid.
C) covalently bound to sugars.
D) coupled to ion transport.
E) via endocytosis.

b. as a liquid

25) Plants contain meristems whose major function is to
A) attract pollinators.
B) absorb ions.
C) photosynthesize.
D) produce more cells.
E) produce flowers

d. produce more cells

26) A cell that is most likely to retain the ability to divide, perform metabolic functions, and store photosynthate would be a
A) parenchyma cell in a leaf.
B) vessel element in the vascular system.
C) endodermal cell in a root.
D) bark cell.
E) fiber cell.

a. parenchyma cell in a leaf

27) Which of the following cell types is least likely to be capable of cell division?
A) mesophyll cell in a developing leaf
B) parenchyma cell 2 mm from the tip of a root
C) parenchyma cell in a dormant axillary bud
D) functional tracheid cell in a stem

d. functional tracheid cell in a stem

28) The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is primarily
A) continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root.
B) continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem.
C) elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem.
D) the elongation of root hairs.
E) continuous cell division of root cap cells.

c. elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem

29) Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to
A) cell division at the shoot apical meristem.
B) cell elongation directly below the shoot apical meristem.
C) cell division localized in each internode.
D) cell elongation localized in each internode.
E) cell division at the shoot apical meristem and cell elongation directly below the shoot apical meristem

d. cell elongation localized in each internode

30) Axillary buds
A) are initiated by the cork cambium. B) have dormant meristematic cells. C) are composed of a series of internodes lacking nodes.
D) grow immediately into shoot branches.
E) do not form a vascular connection with the primary shoot.

axillary buds

The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root. I. root cap II. zone of elongation III. zone of cell division IV. zone of cell maturation V. apical meristem 31) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
A) I, II, V, III, IV
B) III, V, I, II, IV
C) II, IV, I, V, III
D) IV, II, III, I, V
E) I, V, III, II, IV

e. I, V, III, II, IV

32) Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function?
A) sclerenchyma_supporting cells with thick secondary walls
B) periderm_protective coat of woody stems and roots
C) pericycle_waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots D) mesophyll_parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves
E) ground meristem_primary meristem that produces the ground tissue system

c. pericycle-waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots

33) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
A) endodermis
B) phloem
C) cortex
D) epidermis
E) pericycle

e. formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem

34) A leaf primordium is initiated as a small mound of tissue on the flank of a dome-shaped shoot apical meristem. The earliest physical evidence of the site of a newly forming leaf primordium would be
A) development of chloroplasts in a surface cell of the shoot apical meristem.
B) cell division in the shoot apical meristem with the newly forming walls perpendicular to the surface of the meristem.
C) preprophase bands parallel to the surface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem.
D) elongation of epidermal cells perpendicular to the surface of the shoot apical meristem.
E) formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meris
tem.

c. preprophase bands parallel to the suraface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem

35) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called A) hairs.
B) xylem cells.
C) phloem cells.
D) stomata.
E) sclereids.

d. stomata

36) Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants?
A) Only primary growth is localized at meristems.
B) Some plants lack secondary growth.
C) Only stems have secondary growth.
D) Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures.
E) Monocots have only primary growth, and eudicots have only secondary growth.

b. some plants lack secondary growth

37) All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except
A) mesophyll-photosynthesis.
B) guard cell-regulation of transpiration.
C) sieve-tube member-translocation. D) vessel element-water transport. E) companion cell-formation of secondary xylem and phloem.

e. companion cell-formation of secondary xylem and phloem

38) What would be a plant adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest?
A) closing of the stomata
B) lateral buds
C) apical dominance
D) absence of petioles
E) intercalary meristems

c. apical dominance

39) A person working with plants may reduce the inhibition of apical dominance by auxin via which of the following?
A) pruning shoot tips
B) deep watering of the roots
C) fertilizing
D) treating the plants with auxins
E) feeding the plants nutrients

a. pruning shoot tips

40) What effect does "pinching back" have on a houseplant?
A) increases apical dominance
B) inhibits the growth of lateral buds C) produces a plant that will grow taller
D) stimulates lateral buds to grow
E) increases the flow of auxin down the shoot

d. stimulates lateral buds to grow

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