Maturing colonial economies; increasing tension with Great Britain leads to war with Great Britain
growth in transportation and industry; Jacksonian democracy; Manifest Destiny; removal of Native Americans
Civil War and Reconstruction
War over states' rights to secede and emancipation: union preserved; new rights for African Americans
Reform- urban problems; temperance, government and business corruption; women's rights.
World War I
European conflict challenges U.S. policy of neutrality; Allied victory makes the world safe for democracy.
Business booms, superficial prosperity; new lifestyles for women; growth of mass media; Red scarce.
World trade declines, banks fail, high unemployment, urban and rural poverty, New Deal expands role of federal government.
World War II
Dictators threaten world peace on 2 fronts- Europe and Pacific; mobilizes U.S. economy and industry; U.S. a world leader.
Tension between U.S. and Communist USSR; threat of nuclear war; McCarthyism.
Civil Rights Movement
Nonviolent protest- voting rights, desegregation; federal support vs.states' resistance; Black Power and urban riots.
Domino theory- contain communism; war divides the country- campus protest, draft resistance.
systematic murder of 11 million Jews and other people by Nazis before and during World War II
Policy of extending national influence over other countries by political, economic, or military means
the change in society that occurred through replacing hand tools with machines and developed large-scale industry, late 19th-early 20th-century.
increase in prices or decline in purchasing power caused by an increase in the supply of money.
Jim Crow Laws
Southern laws that separated whites and blacks.
interprets the laws and Constitution.
war between North (supported by China) and South (supported by U.S. and U.N.) Korea, 1950-1953
a colonist who supported the British government during the American Revolution.
secret U.S. program to develop the atomic bomb during WWII
19th-century belief that the US. would expand to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican territory.
making or threatening to make public accusations of disloyalty without offering evidence, as done by Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950's.
complete control of an industry by a single company
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to promote racial equality
devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation
Hitler's political philosophy based on nationalism, racism, and military expansionism in 1930's Germany.
President Franklin Roosevelt's program to alleviate problems for the Great Depression.
a state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress it considers unconstitutional.
artificial waterway built to facilitate travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, opened 1914.
colonist who supported American independence.
an annual tax formerly required of voters in some Southern states.
early 20th-century reform movement focused on quality of life as well as business and government corruption.
banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages.
committed to removing all trace of Roman Catholic ritual from the Church of England.
period of rebuilding after the Civil War, former Confederate states readmitted to the Union.
government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
1925 trial over the teaching of evolution in Tennessee
formal with drawl of a state from the Union.
separation of people based on race
Marbury vs Madison
1803-established the principle of judicial review
Dred Scott vs Sandford
1857-ruled that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S.
Plessy vs Ferguson
1896-Established the principle of "separate but equal"
Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
1954-overturned Plessy vs Ferguson, mandated desegregation
Miranda vs Arizona
1966-police required to inform all criminal suspects of their constitutional rights, "Miranda Rights," before questioning
-right to remain silent
-warning that what suspect says can be used against them
-can have attorney before and during questioning
Roe vs Wade
1973-gave women the right to seek abortion in the first three months of pregnancy
-Revolutionary leader, Sons of Liberty,anti-federalist
Susan B. Anthony
-Women's Rights Leader, Women's Suffrage,
-NWSA (National Woman Suffrage Association)
Alexander Graham Bell
-Invented telephone (1876)
John C. Calhoun
-Vice Pres, Nullification theory
-led raid on Harper's Ferry
-Carnegie Steel, philanthropist, vertical & horizontal integration
-British leader (Prime Minister at end of WWII)
-First European to land in Americas
-President of Confederate States of America
Eugene V. Debs
-5 time Pres candidate
-Socialist Party of America
Stephen A. Douglas
-Founder of NAACP
-Invented incandescent electric light bulb,1880
-his assassination triggered WWI
-assembly line, standardized parts; affordable automobiles, 1920's
-enlightenment thinker; revolutionary leader; printer
-British monarch during the American Revolution
-author of the federalist papers; first secretary of the treasury
-dictator who headed Germany's Nazi party,1933-1945
Ho Chi Minh
-communist ruler of north Vietnam, 1954-1969
-first president of the republic of Texas
-leader of women's labor movement, 1867-1930
Progressive-era reformer; campaigned for child-labor law
Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil rights leader; 1964 Nobel Peace Prize
National security adviser ti President Nixon
The ending of legal slavery
American Indian Movement
AIM- formed in 1968 to work for Native American rights
a person who opposes all forms of government
belonging to the period before the civil war
minority groups adaptation to the dominant
U.S. and Britain dropped supplies into West Berlin, blockaded by Soviet, 1948
Prevented citizens from moving between East and West Berlin, 1961-1989
Cheap, efficient way to make steel, developed c. 1850
laws, in southern states after the Civil war, to limit rights of African Americans
Those barred from working in Hollywood because of alleged Communist connections
Militant political organization to combat police brutality and provide services in African-American ghettos, founded1966
Slogan revived by Stokely Carmicheal in the 1960's to encourage black pride and leadership
Description of the antebellum Kansas Territory, due to conflict over slavery
Smuggler of illegal alcoholic beverages during Prohibition
refusal to have economic relations with a person or group
Buying on Margin
Purchasing stock or bonds on credit
Economic system in which private individuals and corporations control the means of and earn profit on them
Establishment of outlining settlements by a parent country
Political and economic philosophy of one party government and state ownership of property
Prison camp operated by Nazi Germany in which Jews and other minorities were murdered or forced into slave labor
Alliance of states or nations acting together for mutual benefit
Allied invasion of mainland Europe June 6, 1944
Very severe and prolonged contraction of economic activity
Granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
legally required military service
Areas of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas hard-hit by drought and dust storms, 1930's
Group selected by states to elect president and vice-president; number of electors equals Congressional representation of each state
Freeing of slaves
Administers and enforces laws
Political philosophy that advocates centralized dictatorial nationalistic government
Supporter of the Constitution and strong national government
Economic system based on private property, free markets, and individuals making most economic decisions
Protestant religious movement based on belief in literal truth of the Bible
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Market value of all goods and services produced in a country in a certain time period
Treaty of Paris
-ended the American Revolution with England
-America acquired Louisiana territory from France, doubled size of the country
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
-ended war with Mexico , US the Mexican Cession
Treaty of Versailles
-German reparations and war-guilt clause
-League of Nations, U. S, doesn't sign
-mutual defense pact among U.S. , Canada, and ten Western European allies
-speech, separation of church and state, press, assembly, right to petition
Right to Bear Arms
No Quartering of troops
Search and Seizure
Rights of accused persons
Right to speedy, public trial.
Right to trial by jury in civil cases.
Limits of fines and punishments
Rights of the people
rights of the states
Slavery abolished (1865)
Civil Rights (1868)
Right to vote (1870)
Income tax (1913)
Woman Suffrage (1920)
Repeal of Prohibition (1933)