Life Span Chapter 20

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The gradual physical decline that occurs with age is called _________________.


Two invisible aspects of aging that predict heart disease are increases in _________ ___________and in ____ __________. Two physicological aspects of the body that protect aging adults are _________ ________and _____.

blood pressure; LDL cholesterol: organ reserve; homeostatsis

With age, neurons in the brain fire more _______(slowly/rapidly) . In addition, by middle adulthood there are fewer __________and __________. These changes contribute to a lengthening of ____ _______, and _____________ becomes more difficult, _______take longer, and complex _____________-______ takes may become impossible.

slowly; neurons; synapses; reaction time; mulitasking; processing; working-memory

Less than ____(what percent?) of people under age 65 experience significant brain loss with age. For those who do, the cause usually is _____ ____, ________ _______, _______ or ______.

1; drug abuse; poor circulation,viruses, genes

Some of then normal changes in appearance that occur during middle adulthood include changes in hair, which ______, and changes in skin, which _______ _____.

turns gray and thins; becomes thinner, less flexible, dryer, rougher, less regular in color and more wrinkled

The "middle-age spread" causes an increase in _________ __________. In addition, the ______weaken and pockets of fat settle on the ________ . By late middle age, bones lose _____, making the ______ shrink and causing a decrease in ________.

waist circumference; muscles; abdomen, upper arms, buttocks, and chin; denisty; vertebrae; height

The aging of the body is most evident in sports and require ________,_________, and _________.

strength; agility; speed

After age 20, the lens of the eye gradually becomes _______ _____, and the cornea becomes ________. This contributes to __________, or difficulty seeing close objects. Difficulty seeing objects at a distance is called ________.

less elastic; flatter; farsightediness; nearsighted-ness *myopia"

The loss of hearing associated with senescence is called ____________. This often does not become apparent until after age____.

presbycusis; 60

Speech-realated hearing losses are first apparent for __________(low/high) fequency sounds.


Jose has enjoyed playing football with friends during most of his adult life. He has just turned 45 and notices that he no longer tackles with the same force had had 10 yrs ago. This is probably because ________

his reaction time has slowed & his type II muscle fibers have decreased substantially & his stomach muscles have weakened

The sexual-Reproductive System:
with age, sexual _______is slower and ____becomes reduced. Most people ___(are/are not) sexually active throughout adulthood.

responsiveness; fertility; are

13. Fertility peaks before age _________, From a biological perspective, women should try to conceive before age ____and men before age ___.


Overall in the U.S., about _____ percent of all couples are infertile. A common reason for male infertilities is a low ______- ______. Female infertility may be the result of _______ _________disease.

15; sperm count; pelvic inflammatory

The collective name for the various methods of medical intervention to restore fertility is _____ _____ ______

assisted reproductive technology (ART)

At an average age of ____________, a women reaches ________________, as an ovulation and menstruation stop and the production of ________, ________, and ________drops considerably. This condition may occur prematurely if a woman has her uterus removed surgically through a _______________.

50: menopause: estrogen:progesterone; testosterone; hysterectomy

The psychololgical consequences of menopause are _________________(variable/not variable). European and North American cultures' perceptions of this aspect of menopause ________(have/have not) changed over time.

variable; have

Over the past two or three decades, many women used ____ ____ ____ to reduce post-menopausal symptoms.

hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Long-term use of HRT beyond menopuause has been shown to increase the risk of ___________ and has no proven effects on ______. However, it __________ (does/ does not) reduce hot flashes and decrease __________.

heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer; dementia; does; osteoporosis

Although some experts believe men undergo _______, most believe that physiologically, men _______(do /do not) experience anything like menopause.

andropause; do not

55 yr old Dewey is concerned because sexual stimulation seems to take longer and needs to be more direct than earlier in his life. As a friend, you should tell him.

c. "Don't worry. This is normal for middle- aged men."

Female fertility may be affected by

obesity, pelvic inflammatory disease, smoking.

Rates of drug abuse _______________(increase/decrease) sharply by age 40.


In North America today, _________________(fewer/more) people begin smoking than in the past. Today, twice as many women die from ____cancer as from cancer of the breast, uterus, or ovary combined. Variations in smoking rates from nation to nation, and from one cohort to another, demonstrate that smoking is affected by _________ ______, laws and advertisements.

fewer; lung; social norms

Some studies find that adults who drink moderately may live longer, possibly because alcohol increases the blood's supply of __ __ __, the "good" cholesterol, and reduces _____ ____ ______, the "bad" cholesterol. It also lowers ___________ _________and ___________. However, even moderate alcohol consumption poses a health risk if it leads to ___________, _________, or other destructive habits.
List some of the health hazards of excessive alcohol used.

high-density lipoproteins (HDL); low-density lipoproteins (LDL) ; blood pressure, glucose; smoking; overeating.

Heavy drinking is the main cause of liver disease; it also destroys brain cells; contributes to osteoporosis; decreases fertility; is a risk factor for may forms of cancer; and accompanies many suicides, homicides, and accidents.

Between emerging adulthood and late adulthood, a person' metabolism(decreases/increases) by about a third, which means that middle-aged people need to eat ________(more/less) simply to maintain their weight.

decreases; less

In the U.S, on average adults gain __________(how many) pounds per year because they consume too many _____-_______, _________ and engage in too little __________. The U.S. is the world leader in _______and _______.

1 to 2; high-calorie foods; activity; obesity; diabetes

Overweight, defined as a _______ _________, is present in __________(What percent?) of all adults in the U.S.Obesity is defined as _________.

a BMI above 25; 66 % ; a BMI or 30 or more

Worldwide, _____ of adults are obese.


Current explanations for the trends in overweight and obesity focus on ____________, on ________, on the _____________ of meals, and on ___________.

genes; diet; context inactivity

(Table 20.2) In general,eating fewer ______and less _________is more important for weight loss than are specifics.
State some of the health benefits of exercise.

calories; fat
Exercise reduces blood pressure; strengthens the heart and lungs; and makes depression, osteoporosis,heart disease, arthritis, and some cancers less likely.

(A View From Science) The steps in breaking a habit are _______, _______, _____, ______ and ______. Our resolve in breaking bad health habits and maintaining good one may fade when we face ___________. This phenomenon is called ______________ _____________.

denial; awareness; planning ; implementation; maintenance; stress; attention myopia

A stressor is defined as ________ _____________.

any situation, event, experience, or other stimulus that causes a person to feel stressed.

In __________-______coping, people try to cope with stress by tackeling the problem directly. In __________-_______coping, people cope with stress by trying to change their emotions. Generally speaking, _______ (younger/older) adults are more likely to be emotion-focused and ________ (younger/older) adults to be more problem-focused. Women may be more _________focused than men, as their bodies produce the hormone _______that triggers ________- ________- _______behaviors.

problem-focused; emotion-focused; older; younger; emotion; oxytocin; tend-and -befriend

The total burden of stress and disease that an individual must cope with is called _______ ______. The gradual accumulation of stressors over a long period of time is called ______________. Identify five general factors that help a person choose how to cope.

allostatic load; weathering
the general factors that seem to help aperson choose are social support; staying well rested, nourished, and exercised; analyzing alternatives; taking control: and finding meaning.

Maureen is British and Maria is Italian. Based on averages, which of the following is most likely true of the two women?

a. Maria is less obese than Maureen

45 yr old Val is the same weight as she has been since college and continues to earth the same types of amounts of food she has always eaten. To maintain her weight though middle age, Val should

b. reduce her caloric intake
a. (continue to eat the same amonts and types of foods) As Val ages, her metabolosim will slow down, so she should reduce her caloric intake.
c&d. Just the opposite is true. She should decrease her intake of food high in LDL and increase her intake of foods high in HDL.

Jack, who is approaching adulthood, want so to know which health habits have the greatest influence on physical well-being. You point to

d. tobacco and alcohol use, overeating, exercise

Immunization, monitoring the food and water supply, and other measure that help prevent ________, ______ and _______are collectively referred to as ________ ________.

morbidity; mortality; disability; public health

Perhaps the most solid indicator of health of given age groups is the rate of ________, or death. This rate is often ________adjusted to take into account the higher death rate among the very old. By this measure, the country with the lowest rate is ________, and the country with the highest rate is ________ ________.

mortality; age; Japan: Sierra Leone

A more comprehensive measure of health is ________, defined as ______of all kinds.

morbidity; disease

To truly portray quality of life, we need to measure _______, which refers to a person's inability to perform basic activities, and ____________, which refers to how healthy and energetic a person feels.

disability; vitality

In terms of quilt of life, _______is probably the most important measure of health.


The concept of ________- _________- ___ _____indicates how many years of full vitality are lost as a result of a particular disease or disability. The reciprocal of this statistic is known as _____ _______- ______- _______.

quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); disability -adjusted life years (DALYs)

Individuals who are relatively well-educated and financially secure tend to live ________ (shorter/longer) lives and have _____(more/fewer) chronic illnesses or disabilities.

longer; fewer

With each more acculturated generation of immigrants to the U.S., health _____________(improves/worsens). One suggested explanation of this phenomenon is that healthy people of high SES are more likely to ___________.

worsens; emigrate

Which of the following would entail the greatest loss of QALYs?

b. 20 yr old woman is permanently disable and unable to work following an automobile accident.
a. (70 yr old man dies in an automobile accident)
Being permanently disables and unable to work, the 20 yr old woman clearly has lost more years of vitality that either an elderly man, who statistically would be expected to die soon anyway.. or
c. (50 yr old man is forced to switch jobs after a skiing accident) middle-aged man who is simply forced to change jobs following an accident.

50 yr old Beth has a college degree and a good job and live near Seattle. Washington, Compared with her sister, who dropped out of high school and is struggling to survive on a dairy farm in rural Wisconsin, Beth is most likely to

d. have fewer chronic illnesses
People who are relatively well-educated, financially secure, and live in or near cities tend to receive all of these benefits

Kirk wants to move to the part of the world that has the lowest annual mortality. You tell him to buy a ticket to

d. Japan

Morbidity is to mortality as ________is to __________

a. disease is to death.
b. (death; disease) this answer would be correct if the statement was "Mortality is to morbidity.
c. (inability to perform normal daily activities; disease)This would be correct if the statement was "Disability is to morbidity."
d. (disease:subjective feeling of being healthy)This answer would be correct if the statement was "Morbidity is to vitality.

1. During the years from 25 to 65, the average adult

d. is more likely to have pockets of fat settle on various parts of the body.
b & c: (gain about 5lbs a yr or 10 lbs/yr) Weight gain varies substantially from person to person. Usually 1 to 2

2. Senescence refers to

c. age-related physical decline

3. Age-related deficits in speech-related hearing are most noticeable for

a. high-frequency sounds

4. Regarding age-related changes in vision, most older adults are

c. nearsighted and farsighted.
(first nearsighted as emerging adults and farsighted as senscence)

5. As we age

d. each of the conditions exist (neurons fire more slowly), the size of the brain is reduced, there are fewer synapses.

6. At midlife, individuals who _____tend to live longer and have fewer chronic illness disabilities.

d. are relatively well educated, are financially secure and live in richer nations

7. The term that refers to diseases of all kinds is

b. morbidity
a. mortality: This is overall death rate
c. disability: this refers to a person's inability to perform normal activities of daily living.
d. vitality: This refers to how physically, intellectually, and socially healthy an individual feels.

8. On average, women reach menopause at age

d. 50

9. DALYs is a measure of

b. the impact of disability on the equality of a person's life.
a. (the quality of a person's life) his refers to QALYs
c. (how healthy and energetic a person feels). This refers to vitality
d. (long-term difficulty in performing normal activities)this refers to the disability itself.

10. allostatic load refers to

a. the combined burden of stress and disease that an individual must cope with

11. Mortality is usually expressed as

a. the number of deaths each year per 1,000 individuals in a particular population

12. The concept that indicates how many years of full physical, intellectual, and social health are lost to a particular physical disease or disability is

d. quality-adjusted life years.
a. Vitality is a measure of how healthy and energetic a person feels.
b. Disability measures only the inability to perform basic activities.
c. Morbidity refers only to the rate of disease

13. Compared with his sister, Melvin is more likely to respond to stress

a. in a problem-focused manner

14. Two invisible aspects of aging that predict heart disease are

a. increases in blood pressure and in LDL cholesterol

15. What percentage of people under age 65 experience significant brain loss with age?

a. less than 1 percent

True/False: 1: Europe is the world leader of the obesity and diabetes epidemics.

The U.S. is the world leader of the obesity and diabetes epidemics.

2. During adulthood, back muscles, connecting tissues, and bones lose density.


3. Approximately half of all adults in the U.S. are obese

Approximately 2 of every 3 are overweight, and half of those are obese.

4. Moderate users of alcohol are more likely that teetotalers to have heart attacks.

Moderate use of alcohol is associated with reduced risk of heart attacks. You never see an alcoholic getting a new heart - Cardiologist told me.

5. Those who exercise regularly have lower rates of serious illness than do sedentary people.


6. Rates of drug abuse increase markedly by age 30 in every nation.

Rates actually decrease

7. During middle adulthood, sexual responses slow down.


8. Senescence refers specifically to the psychological changes that accompany menopause.

Senescence is the gradual physical decline that occurs with age

9. Despite popular reference to it, there is no "male menopause."


The psychological consequences of menopause vary more that the physiological ones.


Progress Test 2: 1. The first visible age-related changes are seen in the

d. skin

2. Of the following, which is the most costly to society

a. disability
When a person is disable, society not only loses an active contributor by may also need to provide special care.

3. Diabetes and obesity are most prevalent in which of the following countries?

d. U.S.

4. Problems that correlate with loss of brain cells in adulthood include

d. drug abuse, viruses, poor circulation

5. Which of the following is NOT true regarding infertility?

c. Age is the determining factor for both men and women.

Age is one factor, but not the determining one.

6. Menopause is caused by a sharp decrease in the production of

a. sex hormones

7. To be a true index of health, morbidity rates must be refined in terms of which of the following health measure(s)?

d. disability and vitality

8. The term "male menopause" was probably coined to refer to

a. the sudden dip in testosterone that sometime occurs in men who have been sexually inactive
b. (age-related declines in fertility among men) Most men continue to produce sperm through out adulthood and are, therefore, theoretically fertile indefinitely.
d. (age-related declines in testosterone levels in middle-aged men.) For men, there is not sudden drop in hormone levels during middle adulthood.

9. Name hormone replacement therapy effects of HRT.

d. for most women, the benefits of HRT out weigh the risk

10. The leading cause of cancer deaths in North America is

a. lung cancer

11. Which of the following was NOT cited as a possible reason for the high incidence of overweight among children and adults?

d. glandular problems
genes, diet and culture are.

12. Which of the following is NOT true regarding alcohol consumption?

a. Alcohol decreases the blood's supply of high density lipo-proteins.
Alcohol increases the blood's supply of HDL, which is one possible reason that adults who drink in moderation may live longer than "teetotalers."

13. The highest rates of obesity are found during

c. middle adulthood

14. Which of the following is true of sexual expressiveness in adulthood?

d. the levels of sex hormones gradually diminish and responses slow down

Matching Items: 1. mortality

e. death; is a measure of health, it ususally refers to the number of deaths each year per 1000 individuals

2. morbidity

a. disease of all kinds

3. vitality

g. more important to quality of life than any other measure of health.

4. menopause

f. the cessation of ovulation and menstruation

5. andropause

h. male menopause

6. ART

b. collective term for infertility treatments

7. HRT

c. often prescribed to treat the symptoms of menopause
hormone replacement therapy

8. osteoporosis

d. a condition of fragile bones
decrease in osteoblast production& osteoclast function

9. disability

i. the inability to perform normal activities

10. quality-adjusted life years

j. number of years of full vitality lost because of disease or disability.

Key Terms: 1: senescence

Senescence refers to the gradual physical decline that accompanies aging.

2. presbycusis

Presbycusis is the significant loss of hearing associated with aging.

3. menopause

At menopause, which usually occurs around age 50, ovulation and menstruation stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops.

4. hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms; it involves taking hormones lipids, patches, or injections) to compensate for hormone reduction.

5. andropause

Andropause, or male menopause, refers to a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, muscle mass and erections.

6. stressor

A stressor in any situation, event, experience, or other stimulus that causes a person to feel stressed.

7. problem-focused coping

In problem-focused coping, people try to solve their problems by attacking them in some way. Males tend to used problem-focused coping vs. women use emotion-focused coping.

8. emotion-focused coping

in emotion-focused coping, people try to solve their problems by attacking them in some way.

9. allostatic load

Allostatic load refers to the total burden of stress and illness that a person must cope with

10 weathering

Weathering is the gradual accumulation of stressors over a long period of time, wearing down the resilience and resistance of a person

11. public health

refers to the measures that help prevent morbidity, mortality, and disablity in the public at large, such as via immunization.

12. mortality

means death. As a measure of health, it usually refers to the number of daths each year per 1,000 memebers of a given population.

13. morbidity

Morbidity means disease. as a measure of health, it refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds in a given population, which can be sudden and severe (acute) or extend over a long time period (chronic).

14. disability

Disability refers to a person's inability to perform normal activities of daily life because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition.

15 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)

the reciprocal of QALYs is a measure of the reduced quality of life caused by disability.


Vitality refers to how healthy and energetic-physically, intellectually and socially - an individual actually feels.

quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)

is the concept that indicates how many years of full vitality an individual loses due to a particular disease or disability.

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