Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System

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notes from the anatomy powerpoints on the cardiovascular system.

cardiovascular system

a closed system of the heart and blood vessels; function is to deliver oxygen and nutrients (and hormones) and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products

blood vessels

allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body; take blood to tissues and back

heart

located in thorax between the lungs, pointed apex directed toward left hip, size of fist

pericardium

double serous membrane of visceral and parietal layers; anchors heart to sternum/diaphragm

visceral pericardium

layer of pericardium that is next to the heart, connects to epicardium

parietal pericardium

outside layer of pericardium

serous fluid

fills the space between the layers of pericardium

pericarditis

condition: walls of pericardium stick together

epicardium

outside layer of heart wall; connects to visceral pericardium; connective tissue layer

myocardium

middle layer of heart wall; mostly cardiac muscle; layer that actually contracts

endocardium

inner layer of heart wall; endolethium; continuous with blood vessels entering/leaving heart

atria

receiving chambers of the heart; found on both left sides and right sides

ventricles

discharging chambers of the heart; found on both left sides and right sides

interventricular septum

divides left and right side of heart longitudinally

blue

what color will is the right side?

red

what color is the left side?

valves

allow blood to flow in only one direction; open as blood is pumped through; held in place by chordae tendineae; close to prevent backflow

atrioventricular valves (AV valves)

two valves between atria and ventricles on both sides; includes bicuspid and tricuspid valves; open when heart is relaxing and closed when heart is contracting

semilunar valves

two valves between ventricle and artery; includes pulmonary and aortic valves; closed when heart is relaxed, open when heart is contracting

chordae tendineae

"heart strings"; hold valves in place; close to prevent backflow

heart murmurs

condition: indicates valve problem; valve doesn't close tightly; if blood flow is turbulent and making extra sound (usually leaky valves) so Dr. hears blood rushing backward; valves can be replaced with pig valves if bad enough

valvular stenosis

condition: valve flaps become stiff (usually infection) and heart workload increases

aorta

largest artery of the body; leaves left ventricle and goes to body with oxygenated blood

pulmonary arteries

carry deoxygenated blood to lungs; leaves right ventricle

superior and inferior vena cava

two parts; enter right atrium

pulmonary veins

four parts; from lungs with oxygenated blood to enter left atrium

coronary veins

branch from base of aorta; give oxygenated blood to heart

cardiac veins

blood drained from heart through this into coronary sinus

coronary sinus

blood from heart's circulatory system empties into right atrium via this

angina pectoris

condition: chest pain with lack of oxygen (myocardium not getting enough blood)

myocardial infarction

"heart attack"; heart cells dying because of lack of oxygen

intrinsic conduction system (nodal system)

allows heart muscle cells contract, without nerve impulses, in a regular, continuous way

autonomic nervous system

controls the speeding up or slowing down of heart beat in conduction system

1 sinoatrial node
2 atrioventricular node
3 atrioventricular bundle
4 bundle branches
5 purkinje fibers

list: parts of conduction system

sinoartrial node

part of conduction system; highest rate of depolarization, starts each heartbeat/heart contraction (in right atrium); maintains heartbeat at 75x a minute (pacemaker for heart);

atrioventricular node

part of conduction system that delays impulse to give atria time to contract

atrioventricular bundle

part of conduction system within interventricular septum

conduction system

special tissues that set the pace of the heartbeat

.22 seconds

length of time for entire conduction system sequence to work

arrhythmia

condition: irregular heart beat (uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contraction)

fibrillation

condition: out of phase contractions; heart is useless as pump

autorhythmic cells

sequential stimulation occurs here

ischemia

lack of adequate blood to heart (injury to SA node sometimes)

pacemaker

acts as artificial SA

tachycardia

rapid heart rate (over 100 beats per min)

bradychordia

slow heart rate (lower than 60 beats per min)

systole

contraction of ventricles

diastole

relaxation of ventricles

atria
ventricles

these contract simultaneously in a healthy heart
above term relax and this term contracts

ECG/EKG (electrocardiography)

method of mapping electrical activity of the heart- traces flow of current through heart
name/name (extended name)

P, QRS, T

3 electrical waves of an electriclam impulse through the heart

P wave

wave of atrial depolarization

QRS wave

wave of atrial repolarization and ventricular depolarization

T wave

wave of ventricular repolarization

cardiac cycle

events of one complete heart beat

mid-to-late diastole

part of heart beat when blood flows into ventricles from atria

ventricular systole

part of heart beat when blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood

early diastole

atria finish re-filling, ventricular pressure i low

lub

louder sound of heart beat; closing AV valves

dup

quieter sound of heart beat; closing semilunar valves

blood pressure

pressure exerted on walls of arteries by blood (taken by sphygmomanometer); especially high number can cause heart attack, stroke, etc.

systolic pressure

maximum pressure in arteries when contracted

diastolic pressure

pressure at rest

cardiac output

amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart in one minute

CO = (heart rate [HR] in bpm) x (stroke volume [SV])

formula for cardiac output

stroke volume

volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction; usually remains constant

lungs - pulmonary veins (4) - LA- LV - Aorta - Body (systemic circuit) - exchanged at capillaries - inferior/superior vena cava - RA - RV - pulmonary arteries - lungs (pulmonary circuit

trace: blood flow in words, starting and ending with lungs

starling's law of the heart

rule that states that the more that the cardiac muscle is stretched, the stronger the contraction

1. sympathetic nervous system
2. hormones
3. exercise
4 decreased blood volume

four causes of increased heart rate

1. parasympathetic nervous system
2. high blood pressure or blood volume
3. excess/lack of Ca, Na, and K

three causes of decreased heart rate

congestive heart failure

condition: pumping efficiency of heart is inadequate to meet tissue needs

coronary atherosclerosis

condition: leads to congestive heart failure from clogging of coronary vessels with fatty buildup

age, gender, exercise, body temp, weight, time of day, body position, emotional state, drugs

list: environmental and genetic factors that affect heart rate

arteries

blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart; thickest walls because of maximum pressure of blood flow from heart

arterioles

minute artery

capillaries

minute blood vessel connecting arterioles with venules; walls only one cell thick to allow for exchange between blood and tissue; oxygen and nutrients cross to cells; carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products cross into blood

venules

minute vein

veins

blood vessel that carries blood away from tissues towards heart; lumens (open space) are largest to; lumens have valves to prevent backflow; use skeletal muscles to help move blood

arteries - arterioles - capillaries - venules - veins

trace: blood flow through blood vessels

tunic intima

most internal of blood vessel layers

endolethium

part of tunic intima; decreases friction of blood flow

tunic media

bulky, middle layer of blood vessels; smooth muscle; controlled by sympathetic nervous system, which changes the diameter of blood vessels

tunic externa

outermost layer of blood vessels; mostly fibrous connective tissue to support and protect vessels

varicose veins

condition: pooling of blood in the feet/legs because of inefficient return from inactivity or pressure; common in people who stand a lot

hepatic portal circulation

drain blood from digestive organs, spleen, pancreas, and passes to liver which detoxifies before passing into systemic circulation

pulse

pressure wave of blood; expansion and recoil of an artery with beat of L ventrioles; average 70-76 bpm

"pressure points"

locations to monitor pulse; pulse is easily palpated

pulse, respiratory rate, and body temperature

3 vital signs

sysystolic

pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction

diastolic

pressure when ventricles relax

neural factors

effects bp; autonomic nervous system adjustments (sympathetic division)

vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels; raises bp

vasodilation

widening of blood vessels; lowers bp

renal factors

effects bp; regulation by altering blood volume; as viscosity (thickness) goes up, bp goes up; renin is hormonal control

peripheral resistance

amount of friction encountered by blood as it flows through blood vessels

vasodilating

heat has a ______ effect on blood vessels

vasoconstricting

cold has a _________ effect on blood vessels

hypotension

condition: low systolic number for blood pressure; often associated with illness

hypertension

condition: high systolic number for blood pressure; can be dangerous if chronic

capillary exchange

substances exchanged due to concentration gradients; oxygen and nutrients leave blood; carbon dioxide and other wastes leave cells; direct diffusion across plasma membrane; endocytosis or exocytosis

intercellular clefts

gaps in capillaries; plasma membrane not joined by tight junctions

fenestrations

pores in capillaries

4
7

when does a simple "tube heart" develop in embryo? (# of weeks)
when does the heart become a four-chambered organ? (# of weeks)

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