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Amylases

Enzyme released from the salivary glands that digests starch by hydrolyzing glycosiidic bonds

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Enzymes that are produced by enterocytes that aid in the final steps of digestion

Carbohydrate

organic compound made up of varying numbers of monosaccharides

Complex carbohydrate

category of carbohydrate that includes oilosaccharides and polysaccharides

Disaccharide

Carbohydrates consisting of 2 monosaccharides bonded together

Duodenum

first segment of the small intestine

Enzyme

assist with the making and breaking of bonds in biological molecules

Fiber

Polysaccharide found in plants that is not digested or absorbed in the human small intestine

Glucagon

Hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells in response to decreased blood glucose

Glucose

A 6-carbon monosaccharide produced in plants by photosynthesis

Glycogen

Polysaccharide consisting of highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules found primarily in liver and skeletal muscle

Hormone

Substances released from glands or cells in response to various stimuli that exert their effect by binding to receptors on specific tissues

Insulin

Hormone secreted by the pancreatic beta cells in response to increased blood glucose

Insulin resistance

Condition characterized by the inability of insulin receptors torespond to the hormone insulin

Lactase

Intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose into glucose and galactose

Lactose

Disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose; produced by mammary glands

Monosaccharide

Carbohydrate consisting of a single sugar

Photosynthesis

process whereby plants trap energy from the sun to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and water

Polysaccharide

complex carbohydrate made of many monosaccharides

Simple carbohydrate

Category of carbohydrates consisting of mono- or disaccharides

Starch

Goes under category of polysaccharide which is a complex carbohydrate

Sucrase

Intestinal enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose into glucose and fructose

Sucrose

Disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose; found primarily in fruits and vegetables

Type 1 diabetes

Previously known as juvenile-onset diabetes and as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin due to loss of insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas

Type 2 diabetes

Previously known as adult onset diabetes and as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when insulin-requiring cells have difficulty responding to insulin in a normal way

sucrose, lactose, maltose

disaccharides

galactose, glucose, fructose

monosaccharides

salivary amylase

shorter chains

pancreatic amylases

disaccharides

pancreas

organ for regulating blood glucose levels

insulin and glucagen

hormones for regulating blood glucose levels

130 gm/day

minimum intake of carbohydrates

high in fiber, low in added sugar

dietary guidelines recommend diet with complex carbohydrates of

helps control weight, reduces spikes in blood glucose, reduces blood cholesterol, reduces risk heart disease, healthy gi tract, reduces risk colon cancer

what fiber does

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