Chapter 11: Digestive System

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Exploring Medical Language Chapter 11

Mouth

Opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication and mixing with saliva

Tongue

Consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached in the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is the major organ for taste ans speech.

Palate

Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

Soft Palate

Posterior portion of the palate, not supported by the bone

Hard Palate

Anterior portion of palate, supported by the bone

Uvula

Soft V-shaped mass that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat

Pharynx, throat

Performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus

Esophagus

10-inch tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach

Stomach

J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control.

Cardia

Area around the opening of the esophagus

Fundus

Uppermost domed portion of the stomach

Body

Central portion of the stomach

Antrum

Lower portion of the stomach

Pylorus

Portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine

Pyloric Sphincter

Ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum

Small Intestine

20-foot canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine

Duodenum

First 10 to 12 inches of the small intestine

Jejunum

Second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet long

Ileium

Third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long, which connects with the large intestine

Large Intestine

Canal that is approximately 5 feet long and extends from the ileum to the anus

Cecum

Blind u-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine

Colon

Second portion of the large intestine. It is divided into four parts: Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid

Rectum

Last portion of the large intestine, approximately 8 to 10 inches long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus

Anus

Sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract

Salivary Glands

Produce saliva, which flows into the mouth

Liver

Produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. It performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism.

Bile Ducts

Passageways that carry bile

Hepatic Duct

Passageway for bile from the liver

Cystic Duct

Carries bile from the gallbladder

Common Bile Duct

Conversion of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms this which conveys bile to the duodenum

Biliary Tract

Hepatic duct, cystic duct, and common bile duct are referred to as this

Gallbladder

Small, saclike structure that stores bile

Pancreas

Produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for carbohydrate metabolism

Peritoneum

Serous saclike lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

Appendix

Small pouch, which has no function in digestion, attached to the cecum. AKA vermiform appendix

Abdomen

Portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis

An/o

Anus (combining form)

Antr/o

Antrum (combining form)

Cec/o

Cecum (combining form)

Col/o
Colon/o

Colon (combining form) Usually denoting the large intestine

Duoden/o

Duodenum (combining form)

Enter/o

Intestine (combining form) Usually denoting the small intestine

Esophag/o

Esophagus (combining form)

Gastr/o

Stomach (combining form)

Ile/o

Ileum (combining form)

Jejun/o

Jejunum (combining form)

Or/o
Stomat/o

Mouth (combining form)

Proct/o
Rect/o

Rectum (combining form)

Sigmoid/o

Sigmoid Colon (combining form)

Abdomin/o
Celi/o
Lapar/o

Abdomen (abdominal cavity) (combining form)

Appendic/o

Appendix (combining form)

Cheil/o

Lip (combining form)

Cholangi/o

Bile duct (combining form)

Chol/e

Gall, bile (combining form)

Choledoch/o

Common bile duct (combining form)

Diverticul/o

Diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ (combining form)

Gingiv/o

Gum (combining form)

Gloss/o
Lingu/o

Tongue (combining form)

Hapat/o

Liver (combining form)

Herni/o

Hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall (combining form)

Palat/o

Palate (combining form)

Pancreat/o

Pancreas (combining form)

Peritone/o

Peritoneum (combining form)

Polyp/o

Polyp, small growth (combining form)

Pylor/o

Pylorus, pyloric sphincter (combining form)

Sial/o

Saliva, salivary gland (combining form)

Steat/o

Fat (combining form)

Uvul/o

Uvula (combining form)

Hemi-

Half

-pepsia

Digestion

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

Cholangioma

Tumor of the bile duct

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

Choledocholithiasis

Condition of stones in the common bile duct

Cholelithiasis

Condition of gallstones

Diverticulitis

Inflammation of the diverticulum

Diverticulosis

Abnormal condition of having diverticula

Esophagitis

Inflammation of the esophagus

Gastritis

Inflammation of the stomach

Gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and intestines

Gastroenterocolitis

Inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gums

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatoma

Tumor of the liver

Palatitis

Inflammation of the palate

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

Polyposis

Abnormal condition of (multiple) polyps (in the mucous membrane of the intestine, especially the colon; high potential for malignancy)

Proctoptosis

Prolapse of the rectum

Rectocele

Protusion of the rectum

Sialolith

Stone in the salivary gland

Steatohepatitis

Inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat; (often caused by alcohol abuse and over time may cause cirrhosis)

Uvulitis

Inflammation of the uvula

Adhesion

Abnormal growing together of two surfaces that normally are sepereated. This may occur after abdominal surgery

Adhesiolysis
Adhesiotomy

Surgical treatment for adhesion. (2 terms)

Anorexia Nervosa

Eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females,and abnormal fear of becoming obese. It occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults.

Bulimia Nervosa

An eating disorder involving gorging with food, followed by induced vomiting of laxative abuse (binging and purgint)

Cirrhosis

Chronic disease of the liver with gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism.

Crohn Disease

Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and characterized by cobblestone ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction (also called regional ileitis or regional enteritis)

Duodenal Ulcer

Ulcer in the duodenum

Gastric Ulcer

Ulcer in the stomach

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

The abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of the mucous barrier of the esophagus

Hemochromatosis

An iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposits of iron in the tissue; can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, or cancer of the liver.

Hemorrhoid

Varicose vein in the rectal area, which may be internal or external

Ileus

Obstruction of the intestine, often caused by failure of peristalsis

Intussusception

Telescoping of a segment of the intestine

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea, and/or constipation usually associated with abdominal pain

Obesity

Excess of body fat (not body weight)

Peptic Ulcer

Another name for gastric or duodenal ulcer

Polyp

A tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign; common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines.

Ulcerative Colitis

Inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers. The main symptom is bloody diarrhea. An ileostomy may be performed to treat this condition.

Volvulus

Twisting of kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction

Abdominocentesis
Paracentesis

Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity (2 terms)

Abdominoplasty

Surgical repair of the abdomen

Anoplasty

Surgical repair of the anus

Anterectomy

Excision of the antrum

Appendicectomy
Appendectomy

Excision of the appendix (2 terms)

Celiotomy

Incision into the abdominal cavity

Cheilorraphy

Suture of the lip

Cholecystectomy

Excision of the gallbladder

Choledocholithotomy

Incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone

Colectomy

Excision of the colon

Colostomy

Creation of an artificial opening in the colon (through the abdominal wall). (Used for passage of stool. This creates a mouth-like opening on the abdominal wall called a stoma)

Diverticulectomy

Excision of a diverticulum

Enterorrhaphy

Suture of the intestine

Esophagogastroplasty

Surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach

Gastrectomy

Excision of the stomach (or part of the stomach)

Gastrojejunostomy

Creation of an artificial opening between the stomach and jejunum

Gastroplasty

Surgical repair of the stomach

Gastrostomy

Creation of an artificial opening into the stomach (through the abdominal wall). (A tube is inserted through the opening for administration of food when swallowing is impossible.)

Gingivectomy

Surgical removal of gum (tissue)

Glossorrhaphy

Suture of the tongue

Hemicolectomy

Excision of half of the colon

Herniorrhaphy

Suturing of a hernia (for repair)

Ileostomy

Creation of an artificial opening into the ileum (through the abdominal wall creating a stoma) (Used for passage of stool.)

Laparotomy

Incision into the abdomen

Palatoplasty

Surgical repair of the palate

Polypectomy

Excision of a polyp

Pyloromyotomy

Incision into the pyloric muscle

Uvulectomy

Excision of the uvula

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

Surgical repair of the uvula, palate, and pharynx (performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea)

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