what type of connective tissue has cells that are packed together and contain nuclei pushed to the side?
what type of connective tissue functions for fat storage and is a source of energy and insulation-->thermoregulation?
what type of connnective tissue is located in the hypodermis of the skin?
what type of connective tissue contains a bunch of different fibers (actin filaments, collagen, elastin) with different embedded cells (fibrobasts, monocytes, mast cells)?
what type of connective tissue functions for packaging organs?
what type of connective tissue is located around organs?
what type of connective tissue has a wavy structure of collagen fibers that are parallel to eachother and are closely packed together and has few blood vessels?
attaches bone to muscle
attaches bone to bone
attaches muscle to muscle
what type of connective tissue has no wavy structure and the fibers run in all different directions?
what type of connective tissue functions for binding and support?
what type of connective tissue is located in the dermis of the skin?
what type of connective tissue functions for attachment (ligaments, tendons, aponeurosis)?
what type of connective tissue is located in tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis?
what type of connective tissue contains fibers mainly made of elastin?
what type of connective tissue is located in the lense of the eye?
what type of cell makes up adipose tissue?
what type of cell makes up cartilage?
what type of connective tissue has a glassy clear background, no fibers are seen, and it is mostly made up of collagen?
what type of connective tissue functions to reduce friction?
what type of connective tissue is located in the costal cartilage connecting the sternum to ribs?
what type of connective tissue is very tough and has huge chondrocytes?
what type of connective tissue functions to withstand pressure, compression, and compaction?
what type of connective tissue is located in intervertebral discs and in the pubic symphysis?
what type of connective tissue looks almost identical to hyaline cartilage but the matrix looks a little more fibrous?
what type of connective tissue functions in flexibility?
what type of connective tissue is located in the external ear?
what is found on the external surface of all bones and is arranged in a haversian system?
what is found in the heads of long bones and in the middle layer of flat bones?
layers of bone made of collagenous fibers and inorganic salt matrix
spidery channels that permit diffusion of nutrients from the central blood vessel to the outer lamellae; they connect osteocytes
chamber of depression (a space) in which an osteocyte is found
mature bone cell in lacunae arranged in circles (lamellae) around a central canal
a haversian system, a central canal and its surrounding lamellae
the function of the haversian canal in compact bone is to carry _______ _________.
in spongy bone, osteocytes are arranged on irregular structures called ___________
type of tissue in which the cells are packed together and are avascular. contain basal membrane, apical membrane, lumen, and a basememt membrane
type of tissue in which the cells are apart or separate with a matrix or ground substance in between (exception: adipose). cells are vascular (except cartilage)
what layer of the skin is made up of stratified squamous epithelial tissue, is the most superficial layer, and is made up of 5 strata?
what is the order of the five strata of the epidermis in order from most superficial to deep? *first letters only
what stratum in the epidermis is only found in thick skin?
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes keratin?
what is the waterproof protein in the epidermis that prevents dehydration and makes up the majority of epidermal cells?
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes melanin and is found only in stratum basale?
what is a dark pigment in the epidermis that is present in everyone but in different proportions?
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are supplied with branches and come from monocytes? they can undergo phagocytosis and alert the immune system when they detect invading pathogens and toxins?
--found in stratum spinosum and granulosum
what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are sensitive to light touch and can inform the nervous system that there is sensation?
--found in basal layer of epidermis
what type of gland are merocrine and apocrine glands?
what type of gland produces a "watery sweat" and is all over the skin surface to cool the body and does not smell?
--duct opens to surface
what type of gland produces a "thick cold sweat", is located around the nipples and pubic area, and smells odoriferous?
--duct leads into nearby hair follicle and does not reach the skin's surface
what type of gland is a holocrine gland?
what type of gland secretes sebum, and the whole cell, and ends in the basement membrane and oils diffuse to the skin's surface?
what type of gland is the wax gland that is in the ear to trap debris and dust so that it doesn't get into the inner ear?
--opens to surface
collectively, the glands of the sin are called __________ glands, where secretion is released into ducts.
_________ glands secrete hormones that are released into the bloodstream and are ductless.
____________ act within the body and does not affect others. Ex: GH, T3/T4, insulin, and glucagon
__________ are secreted to outside the body and can affect the behavior of another individual of the same species. Ex: sex pheromones in humans
a bundle of smooth muscle cells that are attached to the hair follicle. the nervous system senses touches and triggers goosebumps. it works under involuntary control and is a reflex.
basal cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer is the least dangerous but the most common? It rarely spreads/metastasizes, is shiny and pearly looking, and occurs in stratum basale
squamous cell carcinoma
what type of skin cancer has a reddened, scaly appearance and a raised margin? It has to be diagnosed and treated immediately. it occurs in stratum spinosum.
what type of skin cancer is the most serious? it is identified by the ABCD rule (assymetric, irregular border, mix or black brown and orange in color, and diameter is greater than 6mm)
7 year itch mite
what type of skin parasite causes the infection scabies?
house dust mite
what type of skin parasite will not infect the skin, but feeds on dead keratinocytes; is not parasitic
what type of skin parasite (only female) penetrates the skin and lays eggs, leaving the abdomen exposed-->males are outside abdomen trying to get in to female?
--tungiasis---> tunga penetrans
what type of skin parasite undergoes fermentation that produces propionic acid which gives you acne?
--a diff type of this bacteria is found in swiss cheese.
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains chondrocytes? (1)
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains actively dividing cells? (2)
zone of hypertrophy
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains cells that are becoming increasingly larger? (3)
zone of calcification
what zone of the epiphyseal plate is where Ca++ is incorporated and is under hormonal control? (4)
zone of ossification
what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains osteoblasts and osteocytes arranged on trabiculae? (5)
--all chondrocytes die
what is the zone of elongation that is found between the spongy bone and compact bone in a growing long bone?
bone degrading cells
-huge cells; multinucleated
bone forming cells
brush border of osteoclast fits in the _________ _________
_______ receptors receive _________ (same word) from osteoblasts, which activates the osteoclast.
the osteoclasts release _______ via exocytosis for bone degradation; the environment must be highly acidic and anaerobic
bone _______ releases Ca++ into the blood, which is then used by the osteoblasts to form new cells.
what type of ossification starts with a membranous connective tissue the becomes gradually ossified?
--Ex: flat bones of cranium and clavicle
what type of ossification starts with hyaline cartilage that is gradually replaced with osteocytes or osseous tissue?
--all long bones are formed this way
tough connective tissue covering the bone in a long bone
a bone marrow ________ in a long bone is filled with either red or yellow bone marrow.
what type of bone marrow is composed of adipocytes?
what type of bone marrow is composed of hemopoietic cells?
what word means bone formation?
delicate layer lining the bone marror cavity in a long bone?
made up of the skull, thoracic cage, and vertebrae
how many cranial bones are in the skull?
how many facial bones are in the skull?
how many ribs are there?
ribs 1-7; each has own costal cartilage connecting it to the sternum
ribs 8-10; they are not directly connected to the sternum
ribs 11-12; they are not connected to the sternum at all, but are embedded in muscle
how many cervical vertebrae are there?
how many thoracic vertebrae are there?
how many lumbar vertebrae are there?
a free living protozoa that secretes brain degrading enzymes, and if sniffed, it can travel through the olfactory bulb to the brain
--can shift between flagellic form and amoebic form (in amoebic form the protozoa can cause PAM)
the amoebic form of naegleria fowler can cause this sickness....
primary amoebic meningioencephalitis
what does PAM stand for?
what are the soft spots on infants' heads called?
spaces between unfused bones present in babies that are joined by fibrous mebranes and will later undergo intramembranous ossification
--functions: allows baby's skull to compress during birth and allows brain growth during early childhood.
fontanels undergo ___________ ossification
what is the slender U-shaped bone found between the chin and the larynx? It does not articulate with any other bone.
made up of the 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.
vertebra that has no body and allows for nodding motion of head
vertebra that has a dens/odontoid process that articulates with c1 for head rotation
functional classification of joints: immovable joints, Ex: sutures, gomphosis
functional classification of joints: slightly movable joints...all cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphysis
functional classification of joints: freely movable joints...all synovial joints. Ex: knee, shoulder
type of joints that contain a cavity filled with fluid for lubrication
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of strong, short fibrous tissue that allow no movement
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; attaches teeth to sockets
structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of long, fibrous connective tissue
-joins long bones
--Ex: distal portions of tibia and fibula
sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmosis are structurally classified as _________ joints.
synchondroses and symphysis are structurally classified as _________ joints.
structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of hyaline cartilage and joins bones to bones. Ex: costal cartilage
structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of fibrocartilage. Ex: pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs
structural classification of joints: bony joints.
--ex: 2 frontal bones fused together by age 7, 2 mandibles fuse, epiphyseal line
the three ligaments that _______ the knee are:
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
how many bones make up the axial skeleton?
the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones make up the 8 ________ bones.
what bone contains the structures include the middle nasal conchae, superior nasal conchae, crista galli, and cribriform plate?
what is the raised area on the ethmoid bone that attaches to the meninges of the brain?
what is the area on the ethmoid bone that is perforated and loaded with foramina (holes) that allow nerve fibers of the olfactory lobe to pass through-passes signals to the brain and leads to sense of smell?
what is the main structure of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland?
what bone contains the structures mastoid process, styloid process, zygomatic process, and external acoustic meatus?
which bone contains the structures foramen magnum and occipital condyles?
the four ________ consist of the coronal, sagittal, squamous, and lamboid _________(same word).
the four main _______ are the anterior, posterior, sphenoid, and mastoid ________(same word).
_________ vertebrae have transverse processes and transverse foramina (allows nerves and blood vessels to pass through)
________ vertebrae have a spinous process pointing downwards
________ vertebrae have spinous processes pointing outwards and have the largest bodies.
_________ foramina make the vertebral column; they house the spinal cord.
___________ foramina are the holes between the vertebrae; they house the spinal nerves.
what bone consists of 5 fused bones with foramina throughout for passage of nerves and arteries and contains the structures superior, inferior, and lateral articulations?
what bone consists of four fused bones and is called your tailbone?
what structures are made of fibrocartilage and are located between the vertebrae? structures include annulus fibrosus and nunclus pulposus
too much pressure in vertebral discs can cause a _________ disc. upon injury, the nucleus pulposis can ooze out and press against the spinal nerves causing a lot of pain.
what structure in the intervertebral discs is mostly made up of water and its function is to withstand pressure?
what structure of the intervertebral discs is made up of rings of fibrocartilage?
what bone consists of three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process?
the _____________ skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle
how many bones make up the appendicular skeleton?
what is the s shaped bone that contains a medial sternal end a lateral acromial end?
--aka collar bone
the sternal end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.
the acromial end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.
the ________ articulates with the acromion process of the scapula.
what bone contains the structures spine, acromion process, and coracoid process?
--aka shoulder blade
what is the transverse ridge on the posterior side of the scapula?
what structure articulates with the acromial end of the clavicle?
what structure is the attachment point for tendons of the biceps brachii and other arm muscles?
what bone contains a medial and lateral epicondyles that you can palpate on the inside and outside of the arm by the elbow?
what is the bone that is medial on the lower arm in anatomical position and is the larger of the two?
--head is at the distal end of the arm
what is the bone that is lateral on the lower arm in anatomical position and is the smaller of the two?
--head is at the proximal end of the arm
how many carpal bones are there?
what are the bones that are in your wrist and are in two rows of four?
how many metacarpals are there?
what are the bones of the palm?
what are the bones of the fingers?
--2 in thumb, and 3 in all other fingers
how many phalanges are in each hand?
what consists of three bones; 2 coxal/hip bones and 1 sacrum?
_____ bones articulate with the sacrum at the posterior end and are joined at the anterior end by the pubic symphysis?
--they are a fusion of three bones, the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis
what is the largest part of the os coxa that extends from the iliac spine to the acetabulum?
--structures include iliac spine, anterior superior/inferior iliac spine and posterior superior/inferior iliac spine
what is the part of the os coxa that is the inferoposterior portion of it?
--structures include the obturator foramen and the acetabulum
what is the largest foramen in the body located in the ischium of the os coxa?
what is the part of the os coxa where three bones have fused....a deep socket that receives the head of the femur?
what is the most anterior portion of the hip/os coxa?
what bone is the longest and strongest in the body and its structures include fovea capitis, head, and greater and lesser trochanter
what bone is triangular shaped and is embedded in the tendon of the knee...aka your kneecap?
what bone is the larger and medial bone in the lower leg whose structures include the tibial tuberosity and medial malleolus?
what bone is the smaller and lateral bone in the lower leg whose structures include the lateral malleolus?
how many tarsals are in each foot?
what bones are your ankle bones?
-largest is calcaneous
-second largest is talus
the largest tarsal in the foot, it forms your heel
the second largest tarsal in the foot, it articulates with the tibia and calcaneous
how many metatarsals are there in each foot?
how many phalanges are in each foot?
how many bones are in your body?