Anatomy test 3

Created by lbexley 

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adipose

what type of connective tissue has cells that are packed together and contain nuclei pushed to the side?

adipose

what type of connective tissue functions for fat storage and is a source of energy and insulation-->thermoregulation?

adipose

what type of connnective tissue is located in the hypodermis of the skin?

areolar

what type of connective tissue contains a bunch of different fibers (actin filaments, collagen, elastin) with different embedded cells (fibrobasts, monocytes, mast cells)?

areolar

what type of connective tissue functions for packaging organs?

areolar

what type of connective tissue is located around organs?

dense regular

what type of connective tissue has a wavy structure of collagen fibers that are parallel to eachother and are closely packed together and has few blood vessels?

tendon

attaches bone to muscle

ligament

attaches bone to bone

aponeurosis

attaches muscle to muscle

dense irregular

what type of connective tissue has no wavy structure and the fibers run in all different directions?

dense irregular

what type of connective tissue functions for binding and support?

dense irregular

what type of connective tissue is located in the dermis of the skin?

dense regular

what type of connective tissue functions for attachment (ligaments, tendons, aponeurosis)?

dense regular

what type of connective tissue is located in tendons, ligaments, and aponeurosis?

dense elastic

what type of connective tissue contains fibers mainly made of elastin?

dense elastic

what type of connective tissue is located in the lense of the eye?

adipocytes

what type of cell makes up adipose tissue?

chondrocytes

what type of cell makes up cartilage?

hyaline cartilage

what type of connective tissue has a glassy clear background, no fibers are seen, and it is mostly made up of collagen?

hyaline cartilage

what type of connective tissue functions to reduce friction?

hyaline cartilage

what type of connective tissue is located in the costal cartilage connecting the sternum to ribs?

fibrocartilage

what type of connective tissue is very tough and has huge chondrocytes?

fibrocartilage

what type of connective tissue functions to withstand pressure, compression, and compaction?

fibrocartilage

what type of connective tissue is located in intervertebral discs and in the pubic symphysis?

elastic cartilage

what type of connective tissue looks almost identical to hyaline cartilage but the matrix looks a little more fibrous?

elastic cartilage

what type of connective tissue functions in flexibility?

elastic cartilage

what type of connective tissue is located in the external ear?

compact bone

what is found on the external surface of all bones and is arranged in a haversian system?

spongy bone

what is found in the heads of long bones and in the middle layer of flat bones?

lamellae

layers of bone made of collagenous fibers and inorganic salt matrix

canaliculi

spidery channels that permit diffusion of nutrients from the central blood vessel to the outer lamellae; they connect osteocytes

lacuna

chamber of depression (a space) in which an osteocyte is found

osteocyte

mature bone cell in lacunae arranged in circles (lamellae) around a central canal

osteon

a haversian system, a central canal and its surrounding lamellae

blood vessels

the function of the haversian canal in compact bone is to carry _______ _________.

trabeculae

in spongy bone, osteocytes are arranged on irregular structures called ___________

epithelial

type of tissue in which the cells are packed together and are avascular. contain basal membrane, apical membrane, lumen, and a basememt membrane

connective

type of tissue in which the cells are apart or separate with a matrix or ground substance in between (exception: adipose). cells are vascular (except cartilage)

epidermis

what layer of the skin is made up of stratified squamous epithelial tissue, is the most superficial layer, and is made up of 5 strata?

CLGSB

what is the order of the five strata of the epidermis in order from most superficial to deep? *first letters only

lucidum

what stratum in the epidermis is only found in thick skin?

keratinocytes

what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes keratin?

keratin

what is the waterproof protein in the epidermis that prevents dehydration and makes up the majority of epidermal cells?

melanocytes

what type of specialized cell of the epidermis synthesizes melanin and is found only in stratum basale?

melanin

what is a dark pigment in the epidermis that is present in everyone but in different proportions?

dendritic cells

what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are supplied with branches and come from monocytes? they can undergo phagocytosis and alert the immune system when they detect invading pathogens and toxins?
--found in stratum spinosum and granulosum

merkel cells

what type of specialized cell of the epidermis are sensitive to light touch and can inform the nervous system that there is sensation?
--gives goosebumps
--found in basal layer of epidermis

sudiferous

what type of gland are merocrine and apocrine glands?
--sweat glands

merocrine

what type of gland produces a "watery sweat" and is all over the skin surface to cool the body and does not smell?
--duct opens to surface

apocrine

what type of gland produces a "thick cold sweat", is located around the nipples and pubic area, and smells odoriferous?
--sex pheromones
--duct leads into nearby hair follicle and does not reach the skin's surface

sebaceous

what type of gland is a holocrine gland?
--oil glands

holocrine

what type of gland secretes sebum, and the whole cell, and ends in the basement membrane and oils diffuse to the skin's surface?

ceruminous

what type of gland is the wax gland that is in the ear to trap debris and dust so that it doesn't get into the inner ear?
--opens to surface

exocrine

collectively, the glands of the sin are called __________ glands, where secretion is released into ducts.

endocrine

_________ glands secrete hormones that are released into the bloodstream and are ductless.

hormones

____________ act within the body and does not affect others. Ex: GH, T3/T4, insulin, and glucagon

pheromones

__________ are secreted to outside the body and can affect the behavior of another individual of the same species. Ex: sex pheromones in humans

piloerector muscle

a bundle of smooth muscle cells that are attached to the hair follicle. the nervous system senses touches and triggers goosebumps. it works under involuntary control and is a reflex.

basal cell carcinoma

what type of skin cancer is the least dangerous but the most common? It rarely spreads/metastasizes, is shiny and pearly looking, and occurs in stratum basale

squamous cell carcinoma

what type of skin cancer has a reddened, scaly appearance and a raised margin? It has to be diagnosed and treated immediately. it occurs in stratum spinosum.

malignant melanoma

what type of skin cancer is the most serious? it is identified by the ABCD rule (assymetric, irregular border, mix or black brown and orange in color, and diameter is greater than 6mm)

7 year itch mite

what type of skin parasite causes the infection scabies?
--sarcoptic mite

house dust mite

what type of skin parasite will not infect the skin, but feeds on dead keratinocytes; is not parasitic

sand flea

what type of skin parasite (only female) penetrates the skin and lays eggs, leaving the abdomen exposed-->males are outside abdomen trying to get in to female?
--tungiasis---> tunga penetrans

propionibacterium

what type of skin parasite undergoes fermentation that produces propionic acid which gives you acne?
--a diff type of this bacteria is found in swiss cheese.

reserve cartilage

what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains chondrocytes? (1)

proliferation zone

what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains actively dividing cells? (2)

zone of hypertrophy

what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains cells that are becoming increasingly larger? (3)

zone of calcification

what zone of the epiphyseal plate is where Ca++ is incorporated and is under hormonal control? (4)

zone of ossification

what zone of the epiphyseal plate contains osteoblasts and osteocytes arranged on trabiculae? (5)
--all chondrocytes die

epiphyseal plate

what is the zone of elongation that is found between the spongy bone and compact bone in a growing long bone?

osteoclasts

bone degrading cells
-huge cells; multinucleated

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

howship lacunae

brush border of osteoclast fits in the _________ _________

RANKL

_______ receptors receive _________ (same word) from osteoblasts, which activates the osteoclast.

exoezymes

the osteoclasts release _______ via exocytosis for bone degradation; the environment must be highly acidic and anaerobic

degradation

bone _______ releases Ca++ into the blood, which is then used by the osteoblasts to form new cells.

intramembranous

what type of ossification starts with a membranous connective tissue the becomes gradually ossified?
--Ex: flat bones of cranium and clavicle

endochondral

what type of ossification starts with hyaline cartilage that is gradually replaced with osteocytes or osseous tissue?
--all long bones are formed this way

periosteum

tough connective tissue covering the bone in a long bone

cavity

a bone marrow ________ in a long bone is filled with either red or yellow bone marrow.

yellow

what type of bone marrow is composed of adipocytes?

red

what type of bone marrow is composed of hemopoietic cells?

ossification

what word means bone formation?

endosteum

delicate layer lining the bone marror cavity in a long bone?

axial skeleton

made up of the skull, thoracic cage, and vertebrae

8

how many cranial bones are in the skull?

14

how many facial bones are in the skull?

24

how many ribs are there?

true ribs

ribs 1-7; each has own costal cartilage connecting it to the sternum

false ribs

ribs 8-10; they are not directly connected to the sternum

floating ribs

ribs 11-12; they are not connected to the sternum at all, but are embedded in muscle

7

how many cervical vertebrae are there?

12

how many thoracic vertebrae are there?

5

how many lumbar vertebrae are there?

naegleria fowleri

a free living protozoa that secretes brain degrading enzymes, and if sniffed, it can travel through the olfactory bulb to the brain
--can shift between flagellic form and amoebic form (in amoebic form the protozoa can cause PAM)

PAM

the amoebic form of naegleria fowler can cause this sickness....

primary amoebic meningioencephalitis

what does PAM stand for?

fontanels

what are the soft spots on infants' heads called?

fontanels

spaces between unfused bones present in babies that are joined by fibrous mebranes and will later undergo intramembranous ossification
--functions: allows baby's skull to compress during birth and allows brain growth during early childhood.

intramembranous

fontanels undergo ___________ ossification

hyoid

what is the slender U-shaped bone found between the chin and the larynx? It does not articulate with any other bone.

vertebral column

made up of the 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx.

atlas

vertebra that has no body and allows for nodding motion of head

axis

vertebra that has a dens/odontoid process that articulates with c1 for head rotation

synarthrosis

functional classification of joints: immovable joints, Ex: sutures, gomphosis

amphiarthrosis

functional classification of joints: slightly movable joints...all cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphysis

diarthrosis

functional classification of joints: freely movable joints...all synovial joints. Ex: knee, shoulder

synovial

type of joints that contain a cavity filled with fluid for lubrication

sutures

structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of strong, short fibrous tissue that allow no movement

gomphoses

structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; attaches teeth to sockets

syndesmosis

structural classification of joints: fibrous joints; composed of long, fibrous connective tissue
-joins long bones
--Ex: distal portions of tibia and fibula

fibrous

sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmosis are structurally classified as _________ joints.

cartilagenous

synchondroses and symphysis are structurally classified as _________ joints.

synchondroses

structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of hyaline cartilage and joins bones to bones. Ex: costal cartilage

symphysis

structural classification of joints: cartilagenous joints; composed of fibrocartilage. Ex: pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs

synostosis

structural classification of joints: bony joints.
--ex: 2 frontal bones fused together by age 7, 2 mandibles fuse, epiphyseal line

stabilize

the three ligaments that _______ the knee are:
1. collateral
2. cruciate
3. transverse

collateral

the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. __________
2. cruciate
3. transverse

cruciate

the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. collateral
2. __________
3. transverse

transverse

the three ligaments that stabilize the knee are:
1. collateral
2. cruciate
3. _________

80

how many bones make up the axial skeleton?

cranial

the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones make up the 8 ________ bones.

ethmoid bone

what bone contains the structures include the middle nasal conchae, superior nasal conchae, crista galli, and cribriform plate?

crista galli

what is the raised area on the ethmoid bone that attaches to the meninges of the brain?

cribriform plate

what is the area on the ethmoid bone that is perforated and loaded with foramina (holes) that allow nerve fibers of the olfactory lobe to pass through-passes signals to the brain and leads to sense of smell?

sella turcica

what is the main structure of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland?

temporal bone

what bone contains the structures mastoid process, styloid process, zygomatic process, and external acoustic meatus?

occipital bone

which bone contains the structures foramen magnum and occipital condyles?

sutures

the four ________ consist of the coronal, sagittal, squamous, and lamboid _________(same word).

fontanels

the four main _______ are the anterior, posterior, sphenoid, and mastoid ________(same word).

cervical

_________ vertebrae have transverse processes and transverse foramina (allows nerves and blood vessels to pass through)

thoracic

________ vertebrae have a spinous process pointing downwards

lumbar

________ vertebrae have spinous processes pointing outwards and have the largest bodies.

vertebral

_________ foramina make the vertebral column; they house the spinal cord.

intervertebral

___________ foramina are the holes between the vertebrae; they house the spinal nerves.

sacrum

what bone consists of 5 fused bones with foramina throughout for passage of nerves and arteries and contains the structures superior, inferior, and lateral articulations?

coccyx

what bone consists of four fused bones and is called your tailbone?

intervertebral discs

what structures are made of fibrocartilage and are located between the vertebrae? structures include annulus fibrosus and nunclus pulposus

herniated

too much pressure in vertebral discs can cause a _________ disc. upon injury, the nucleus pulposis can ooze out and press against the spinal nerves causing a lot of pain.

nucleus pulposus

what structure in the intervertebral discs is mostly made up of water and its function is to withstand pressure?

anulus fibrosis

what structure of the intervertebral discs is made up of rings of fibrocartilage?

sternum

what bone consists of three parts: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process?

appendicular

the _____________ skeleton consists of the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle

126

how many bones make up the appendicular skeleton?

clavicle

what is the s shaped bone that contains a medial sternal end a lateral acromial end?
--aka collar bone

endochondral

the sternal end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.

intramembranous

the acromial end of the clavicle is ossified by __________ ossification.

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