Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Compromise of 1867
The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph's attempt, in 1866, to deal with the demands for greater autonomy from the ethnic minorItles within the Hapsburg Empire. The compromise set up a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, where Franz Joseph served as the ruler of both Austria and Hungary, each of which had its own parliament.
Ottoman officer who seized power in 1805 and established a separate Egyptian state from the Ottoman Empire. He introduced a series of reforms in education, the military, and industry to bring Egypt into the modern world.
The movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization.
Loyalty and devotion to a particular nation.
Austrian neurologist whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis.
German nursing pioneer who founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick in Hamburg.
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico. Elected in 1861 and 1867.
A well known British explorer and missionary of Africa for over 30 years. He wrote about Africa with more sympathy and less bias than most writers of his time.
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Introduced a new puddling process, a new process for melting and stirring molten ore.
Led the revolt in the French colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti)
A vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance.
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state (1816)
Marxists who rejected the revolutionary approach.
Marie (1867-1934) a Polish born physicist, and her husband Pierre discovered that radium constantly emits subatomic particles, which means it doesn't have a constant weight.
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
A governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign.
A leading figure in the Mexican Revolution (1910- 1920) who fought for farmers' rights, gathered an army in southern Mexico and urged farmers to join (Liberation Army of the South)
First War of Independence
Indian revolt know to the British as the Sepoy Mutiny. This was caused by the Indians' distrust with the British.
English natural scientist who studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands. In his book "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" (1859), he set forth his theory of evolution.
The industrial working class.
French impressionist painter (1840-1926)
A social class comprising those who do manual labor or work for wages in factories and other industrial places.
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman who was born in Argentina. He was the leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile. "Protector of Peru".
German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.
Politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
A theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
"White Man's Burden"
The idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized.
Early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.
Russian Parliament (National Legislature).
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815).
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
The most famous Indian author who was the winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913, a social reformer, spiritual leader, educator, philosopher, singer, painter, and international spokesperson for the moral concerns of his age. He set to music the Bengali poem Bande Mataram, which became Indian Nationalism's first anthem.
James Monroe's statement warning European nations not to colonize or interfere in the Americas.
Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions.
A Siam king (now Thailand) who remained separate by promoting Western learning and maintaining friendly relations with the major European powers. He is remembered as a modernizer and spiritual leader of his country.
Invented the radio could transmit waves all the way across Atlantic.
An influential Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes (1881-1973). Lived in France.
A colonial government in which local rulers are allowed to maintain their positions of authority and status.
Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism. Made a fortune by gold and diamond mining.
French painter noted for his realistic depiction of everyday scenes (1819-1877).
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
The idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected executive body and not to the executive officer.
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
An economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing.
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners.
Elite of European society was a wealthy elite that made up only 5% of the population that held 30-40% of the wealth.
An engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the engine.
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Frenchman who perfected the Realist novel; leading novelist of the 1850s and 1860s; author of "Madame Bovary."
Lead the movement to win women's vote (suffrage) through militant (radical, sometimes violent) means. Founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903.
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895).