someone who crafts an object from raw materials
sculpture in which the carvings project slightly from the background
roughly from 3000-1000 BCE when bronze replaced stone as the material for tools
a city and possibly the surrounding agricultural area that is also an independent political unit
when human society has advanced to share the elements of government, architecture, ideas, etc.
wedge shaped writing/ the "first" writing done with a stylus on a damp clay tablet and preserved through drying in the sun
small cylinders decorated with distinctive images. These were rolled on damp clay to leave a rectangular impression to "seal" a business deal/ equivalent to a signature today
to declare someone a god
when rule of a country or empire passes down in a family from one generation to the next
several lands joined together under one ruler called an emperor
poems/ stories that tell of the deeds of great heroes
the epic story of the king Gilgamesh, who searched for immortality/ a Sumerian legend. This is believed to be the first story.
dominance or control (ex: when a powerful country has influence over a region)
supplying water to argricultural land by artificial means
a ruler who is a king or queen
the worship of many gods
Royal Standard of Ur
an artifact from the Royal Graves of Ur. It contained pictures that are very informative to scholars.
someone who writes/ usually a revered position in ancient society
an adjective used to describe a group of people who's language could be traced back to the same root
a monument, vertical in style, small or large, that contained writing or pictures to commemorate or record something
food/goods produced that are extra (not needed for survival) and available to barter/ sell.
A government under the control of religious leaders
to take over a position without any legal right
small divotional statues that Sumerians left in the ziggurat to appease their gods
a temple in Mesopotamia. It had a distinctive shape and was used to store commodities and goods that were given as offerings. People worked and lived there.