Ch 2 Cell Processes and Energy

28 terms by sydfeinsmith

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

photosynthesis

process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food

autotroph

organism that makes its own food

heterotroph

organism that cannot make its own food; obtains food from other organisms

2 Stages of Photosynthesis

chloroplasts (green) capture the energy in sunlight; use the energy to make food and oxygen

pigments

colored chemical compounds that absorb light

chlorophyll

the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts; captures light energy and uses it to power 2nd stage

stomata

small openings on the underside of leaves; how carbon dioxide enters and oxygen leaves

photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2

respiration

process by which cells obtain energy from glucose; cells break down simple food molecules such as sugar and release the energy they contain; energy stored in form of carbohydrates, break them down when energy is needed

2 Stages of Respiration

1. in cytoplasm - molecules of glucose broken down into smaller ones, oxygen not needed, not a lot of energy released. 2. in mitochondria - small molecules broken down into even smaller ones, oxygen used, lots of energy released

respiration equation

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

fermentation

energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen; doesn't release a lot of energy

alcoholic fermentation

when yeast and other single-celled organisms break down sugars; products = alcohol, CO2 and little energy; CO2 makes air pockets in bread making it rise; also cause of bubbles in alcohol

lactic acid fermentation

in the muscles; when they use up more oxygen than can be replaces - fermentation takes place, producing lactic acid, makes it weak and sore.

cell cycle

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo; the cell grows, prepares for division, and divides into two new daughter cells

interphase

first stage of cell cycle; the cell grows, replicates DNA, and prepares for division; produces the structures it needs for division

replication

process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus

mitosis

2nd stage in which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei; one copy of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell

prophase

1st phase of mitosis; chromotin straighten (rod-like) and begin pairing to form chromosomes, nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles begin to move to poles

metaphase

2nd phase; chromosomes line at equator, centrioles at poles, spindle fibers join the centromere of chromosome

anaphase

3rd phase; chromosomes move to opposite poles by spindle fibers, grouping together in two parts, cell begins to cleave.

telophase

4th phase; nuclear envelope reforms, centrioles move back to poles; cell almost split

chromosome

a double rod of condensed chromotin held together by the centromere; contains DNA that carry genetic info

cytokinesis

cytoplasm pinches together around middle of cell and cytoplasm divides; two identical daughter cells, each has half the cytoplasm and half the organelles

cancer

disease in which cells grow and divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them; begins when something damages a portion of the DNA in a chromosome

mutation

a change in DNA or a chromosome

tumor

a mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably

chemotherapy

the use of drugs to treat a disease; carried through through the body by the bloodstream; they kill cancer cells or slow down their growth

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set