Nutritional Science Exam 3

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About 90% of Vitamin E is stored in ___________

Adipose Tissue

Symptoms of a vitamin C deficiency include _____________

Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include bleeding gums and loose teeth

High Zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of cooper

True

As bone resorption begins to occur more frequently than bone formation, adults tend to lose height

True

Heat cramps are caused by fluid and electrolyte imbalances

True

Making up 80 % of the human skeleton, ___________ bone is also referred to as compact bone

Cortical

After completing a 10K run, Bonita notices that her urine brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita's hydration status?

She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immeadiately

The binder found in high fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is ___________

Oxalic Acid

All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCEPT

Unexplained weight gain

Fifty percent of Americans with osteoporosis are men

False

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States

True

Guinea pigs and __________ are two groups that cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must consume it in their diet.

Humans

Cindy J. is 63 years old and at risk of osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?

Calcium and Vitamin D

A condition characterized by dangerously high potassium levels in the blood is _________

Hyperkalemia

The calcium in calcium fortified orange juice is well absorbed

True

In addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in our ___________

Large Intestine

Vitamin D toxicity is associated with _______________

Supplements

A severe vitamin B12 deficiency results in a condition called ___________ anemia

Pernicious

Between 50 - 70 % of an adult's body weight is comprised of fluid

True

Antioxidants must be consumed in our diet because our bodies cannot make them

True

The meat factor is

a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption

High concentrations of homocysteine in the blood are associated with the development of _________

Heat Disease

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with the decreased absorption and utilization of __________

Thiamin

Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?

Water is resistant to changes in temperature

Which of the following is not a mechanism to maintain the body's internal temperature?

Warmed Fluids from the body's surface return to the body's core, this heating the body.

The light sensitive pigment found in rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is __________

Rhodospin

The most critical role that vitamin A plays in the human body is _____________

Maintaining healthy vision

DXA is used to evaluate bone density in women only

False

Chromium assists in _________ uptake

Glucose

Good sources of riboflavin include _________________

Milk, Meats and Green Vegetables

A deficiency of _________ has been associated with convulsions and dermatitis in infants

Vitamin B6

Which of the following comprises the vitamin B6 "umbrella" of compounds?

Pyridoxal, Pyridoxine and Pyridoxamine

Vitamin C assists in the synthesis of ___________, a protein that is a critical component of all connective tissues in the body.

Collagen

Even individuals who eat a variety of healthy foods cannot meet their micronutrient needs from food alone and should take a daily supplement

False

As vitamin A is fat-soluble, supplements of the nutrient can be highly toxic

True

The B complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body

False

Drinking 8 glasses of fluid each day ensures that all healthy adults will meet their fluid needs

False

Which of the following is not associated with the female athlete triad?

Hypertension

The water that comes from lakes, rivers and reservoirs is ____________ water

Surface

Hyponatremia is associated with _________

Overhydration

Which of the following techniques can assess the risk of fracture?

Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

The majority of our body's fluoride is stored in ________

The skeleton

Which of the following does not explain why infants are at a higher risk of dehydration compared to adults?

Infants have a lower total body water percentage

The release of ________ from the extracellular fluid stimulates muscle contraction

Calcium

Clear to pale colored urine is a good indicator of good hydration status

True

People who consume large amounts of raw eggs are susceptible to _________ deficiency

Biotin

A condition that results from the overconsumption of fluoride is _________

Fluorosis

Death rates due to osteoporosis are more common in women than in men

False

Toxicity to water-soluble vitamins is most often due to the over-use of high potency vitamin supplements

True

Approximately half of all cancers are strongly hereditary

False

Which of the following does not increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?

Moderate alcohol consumption

Carotenosis or _________, is a skin condition associated with consuming high levels of beta carotene

Carotenoderma

As beta carotene is not considered a nutrient, no RDA has been established

True

Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper function of _______ cells

nerve

The iron-carrying protein that assists in the transport of oxygen into muscle cells is

Myoglobin

Consuming excessive amounts of calcium supplements can lead to the development of kidney stones

False

One of the symptoms of heat exhaustion is cessation of body sweating

False

Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop

True

The letters used to identify the fat-soluble vitamins indicate

The chronological order in which the vitamins were discovered

Limiting salt consumption improves blood pressure in some individuals with hypertension

True

The majority of the body's magnesium is found in the _______

Bones

The only way to obtain adequate calcium and vitamin D is to use supplements

False

We consume the majority of our dietary chloride in the form of ________

Salt

Diets high in sodium are associated with

High Blood Pressure

Examples of antioxidant enzyme systems include superoxide dismutase, ________, and gluthathione peroxidase

Catalase

In an atom, the nucleus has a positive charge, and the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have a _________ charge

Negative

Trace minerals are those that the body needs in amounts less than ________mg per day

100

The majority of people who develop cancer will die from the disease

False

Beta-carotene is a precursor of _______

Retinol

Consuming even moderately excessive doses of vitamin C supplements would be most harmful to individuals suffering from ___________

Hermochromatosis

A megadose of a vitamin is defined as consuming ___________ times the recommended intake

Less than or equal to 10

Keshan disease is a heart disorder associated with a(n) deficiency

Selenium

Lean tissue contains a lower percentage of fluid compared with fat tissue

False

One of the reasons that the elderly are at a high risk of dehydration is that their thirst mechanism is less effective than younger people

True

The nucleus of the atom has a positive charge

True

The fluid that is found in between cells is called __________ fluid

Interstitial

Which of the following terms is synonymous with the word malignant?

Cancer

Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ______ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency

Fat

Vitamin K serves as a(n) __________ to various enzymes involved in the coagulation of blood.

Coenzyme

Which vitamin can be made from the amino acid tryptophan?

Niacin

Vitamin K deficiencies are rare because

Intestinal bacteria produce vitamin K

The point at which our bones are the densest is _______ bone density

Peak

Water-soluble vitamins are not toxic; they are harmless even when consumed in megadose amounts

False

Which of the following groups are the most vulnerable to dehydration?

Infants and the elderly

Fluid lost via sweating and respiration is ___________ water

Insensible

A(n) _______ is a molecule that combines with an enzyme to activate it and help it do its job

Coenzyme

There are no known side effects associated with consuming large amounts of vitamin K from supplements or food

True

High concentrations of homocysteine in the blood are associated with the development of _____________

Heart Disease

Bob's physician has just diagnosed him with iron-deficiency anemia. All of the following would be good advice for Bob to utilize more dietary iron except

Drinking a glass of milk with his iron supplement

The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the _______

Bones

Which of the following statements is false regarding phosphorus?

On average, Americans do not consume enough phosphorus in their diets

Macronutrients are more efficiently absorbed by the body than micronutrients

True

Researchers estimate that _________ of cancer deaths are related to overweight or obesity, poor nutrition, and physical activity

one-third

Heat exhaustion is the most severe form of heat illness

False

A substance that is capable of dissolving a variety of compounds is known as a/n ___________

Solvent

Which of the following statements is false concerning vitamin C?

Smokers should consume less vitamin C than non-smokers

Which of the following is not a function of vitamin E?

Improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low

Fluids move freely in and out of cells

True

Carrots, spinach, and sweet potatoes contain a large amount of preformed vitamin A

False

Which of the following will impair iron absorption?

Low amounts of stomach acid

Which component of the blood is essential in transporting oxygen to body cells?

Erythrocytes

Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in the ________

Liver

Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?

Vitamin C

Which of the following will likely result if the concentration of electrolytes outside the cell is higher than in the intracellular environment?

The cell will shrink and dry up

The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called __________

Osmosis

Which of the following does not explain why infants are at a higher risk of dehydration compared to adults?

Infants have a lower total body water percentage

Carotenosis is a serious side effect of consuming too much beta-carotene that can be fatal if untreated

False

As compared to light skinned individuals, the synthesis of vitamin D is limited in individuals with darker skin

True

Vitamins D and ______ are two fat-soluble vitamins humans obtain from non-dietary sources

K

Individuals taking diuretics should always increase their dietary potassium intake

False

The major electrolyte lost in sweat is __________

Sodium

Mineral supplements are made in the laboratory from plant sources

False

The oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells is called ____________

Hemoglobin

The process called bone ________ determines the shape of bones

Modeling

Phosphorus consumption has increased approximately 10-15% over the past 30 years. This is largely due to the increased consumption of ________________

Processed Foods

Which of the following do sodium and potassium not have in common?

Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe and potatoes.

What is the primary reason osteoporosis incidence in the United States is expected to increase?

Increased longevity of the population

Which of the following is false concerning carotenoids?

Beta carotene is the only carotenoid that functions as an antioxidant

Compounds that protect our cells from the damage caused by oxidation are __________

Antioxidants

Moderate caffeine consumption (fewer than 3 cups a day) can result in bone loss in elderly women

False

Newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin K at birth due to the fact that ___________________

Newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin K

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the _________ gland

Thyroid

The thirst mechanism is highly sensitive and responsive to changes in fluid balance, especially as we age

False

Term used to describe the two step process by which bone tissue is recycled is __________

Remodeling

A deficiency of __________ leads to the development of pellagra

Niacin

A toxicity of folate can disguise a true deficiency of __________, resulting in nerve damage

Vitamin B12

Prothrombin and factor VII are _________

Proteins that are involved in the coagulation of blood

Hormone replacement therapy has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for heart disease

False

The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of __________ in and out of the muscle cell

Calcium

Neural tube defects are associated with insufficient ___________ during the first four weeks of pregnancy

Folate

Substances such as aspirin and Coumadin that stop bloods from clotting excessively are

Anticoagulants

The majority of the calcium formed in our bodies is found in the blood and soft tissues

False

The liquid portion of the bloods is called __________

Plasma

Vitamin K's primary role in the body is ___________

Blood Clotting

A vitamin D deficiency in childhood may result in _________, a disease characterized by inadequate mineralization of the skeleton

Rickets

Which of the following individuals would be at risk for vitamin K deficiency?

A 30 year old with Crohn's disease

A deficiency of _________ is the most common deficiency worldwide

Iron

What is transamination?

A key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids

Which statement is false regarding fat soluble vitamins?

Fat soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis

Heats cramps are caused by fluid and electrolyte imbalances

True

Athletes are more likely to develop a heat illness of hot and humid days. Why?

In hot and humid weather the body cannot dissipate heat via evaporation of sweat

Carbon and hydrogen are two examples of ___________

Atoms

In which phase of a woman's life cycle is bone loss the greatest?

Menopause

High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper

True

Free Radicals

Are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke

The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is _________

Scurvy

Iodine is naturally found in many foods and beverages

False

Assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium?

Cottage Cheese

A genetic disorder that results in an excess of iron absorption and storage is _________________

Hemochromatosis

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