•Systematic inequalities between groups of people
-As a consequence of social processes, relationships
•private property creates social inequality, which leads to social conflict
•agreed with Rousseau, but argue inequality is good
-It means some are getting ahead, creating assets
•Viewed inequality favorably, as a means of controlling population
•Equal distribution of resources would increase world population to unsustainable levels
-Mass starvation, conflict
came up with the master-slave dialectic theory about inequality
•Most social relationships based on master-slave model
•Will die out as society gains more free people over time
Everyone is created equal in the eyes of God
Equality of opportunity
•Inequality is acceptable if everyone:
-Has the same opportunities for advancement
-is judged by the same standards
•was key to the arguments of civil rights leaders in the 1960s
Equality of Condition
Everyone should have an equal starting point from which to pursue their goals
Equality of outcome
•Everyone should end up with the same "rewards"
-Regardless of starting point, opportunities, contributions
A class is a group characterized by common life chances and opportunities
Status hierarchy system
Based on social prestige
Elite-mass dichotomy system
Based on a governing elite-a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society
•Refers to an individual's position in a stratified social order
•Occupation, Wealth, Income, Education
the capacity for someone to move up and down a system
•Condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances
-Severe enough that one cannot live w/ dignity in society
•Federally defined income limit
•Estimates level of absolute poverty
-Assumes food is 1/3 of expenses
•families living above poverty line cannot necessarily support themselves
-Food costs have decreased, but the cost of living (rent, utilities, etc.) as increased
Poverty and social problems
Poverty connected to crime, poor educational outcomes, divorce
Culture of Poverty
The poor adopt certain practices, which differ from middle-class, "mainstream" society, to adapt & survive
exchange time, money, etc. to cover temporary shortfalls
•The poor are not only different, but increasingly deviant, even dangerous
•Response to perverse incentives or welfare
•Rewards that stimulate counterproductive behavior
William Julius Wilson
•Deemphasized welfare, saved urban poverty caused by: deindustrialization, globalization, suburbanization
•Child poverty rate 22%
How poverty affects children?
-1) kids are deprived of basic necessities
-2) parenting stress hypothesis: stress of poverty leads to detrimental practices (shouting, hitting)
-3)personal characteristics that cause poverty also cause negative parenting
What money can't buy?
•sociologist Susan Mayer challenged the common assumption that poverty directly causes poor health, behavioral problems, and a host of other problems for children
•Very little evidence that parental income has an effect on children's outcome
Moving to opportunity
•Families in public housing randomly selected to move through low poverty areas
•Adults: happier, healthier, less stress, from fear violence
•Children: school outcomes improves, injuries & asthma decreased
Biological differences (like chromosomes, genitalia, physical features)
Social construct consisting a set of norms built around sex
Sexual desires, preferences, identities, behaviors
•Related more to social status than biology
Ideal of masculinity so dominant that it is regarded as the norm
•Intellectual, consciousness-raising movement
-Women and men should have equal opportunities and respect
Feminism (more modern way of feminism)
•Gender is an organizing principle of life
-Structures social relations unequally, so power is intertwined w/ gender differences
Nearly universal system involving the subornation of femininity to masculinity
The Woman Question
Many theories and approaches can be applied to the study of gender and power
•Focus on individualistic explanations as opposed to societal ones
•Assumption: natural differences b/t sexes dictate behavior
•Gender differences exist to fulfill necessary functions in society
•Doesn't allow that:
-Other structures could fulfill the same functions
-Structures change throughout history
•sex role theory: argues that there are 2 biological based needs: a males figure who earns income and the homemaker who winds up taking care of domestic duties; argues that this was ideal
-Breadwinner/ homemaker model ideal for reproducing workers
•the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general
•Patriarchal capitalists benefit through systems that subordinate women
argue that all social relations are influenced by gender inequality
Explaining social phenomena in terms of natural ones
•Your social behavior should be as a direct result of your sex
•line of thought that explains social behavior in terms of biological givens
Only male & female, heterosexuality assumed
1-3 of 1,000 babies born with ambiguous genitalia
Social construction of gender and sexuality
"normal" and "abnormal" defined by social environment, not by nature
Social identity of one who has sexual attraction and/ or relation w/ the same sex
Acts vs. Identities
•Until 19th century, only 2 types of sex acts
-Socially approved: sex within marriage for procreation
-Socially disapproved: same-sex acts, oral sex, masturbation
Emergence of Sexual Identities
•Late 1800s (19th century)-growing body of medical literature classified people as homosexuals
•American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from list of disorders in 1973
•Semen=vital life force
•Boys initiated into manhood through regular fellatio on older boys and men
Kinsey Report (1948)
•Americans have wide variety of sexual behaviors, desires
•Public reaction-disbelief, concern about morality
Kinsey sexuality scale
based on sexual thoughts, behaviors, identity
The Integrative Perspective
•Sexual identities determined by both social and biological factors
•Some studies link biology (genetics, sex hormones) to sexual orientation
•A group who share a set of characteristics (usually physical) and are said to share a common bloodline
-All humans=99.9% genetically identical
•A social construct, changing over time and place
•Belief that separate races possess different and unequal human traits
•Many historical efforts to explain race were biased due to ethnocentrism
Africans descend from Ham, cursed in Genesis 9
Early theories investigating origins, explanations, and classifications of race
Race in the Early Modern World
Racial classification based on skull measurements
•"survival of the fittest"
•All races=same species
•Some races were more evolved, better fit to survive or rule others
Races have social-psychological traits transmitted through bloodlines
can shape traits of the population
Movement to protect land and culture from polluting effects of new immigrants
The One-Drop Rule
•Belief that one drop of black blood makes a person black
•Applying this rule kept the white population pure
•Dated, politically-charged term
•Laws against intermarriage overturned by Loving v. Virginia, 1967
Race and Ethnicity
•Race is externally imposed, involuntary, characteristics are physical (usually), hierarchal, exclusive
•Ethnicity is self-identified, voluntary, cultural, nonhierarchal, fluid and multiple, not power-based
•Individualistic in nature, without real social cost
•a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the rights and duties of citizenship but identifying with a past or future nationality
Formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people
-Depends on historical period
•Involves "invisible" privileges
Minority-Majority Group Relations
•Process in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and mimic local behaviors
-Eventually blend in completely
Ethnic ties are fixed for biological or cultural reasons
•Presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society
-No single majority
-Or, minorities live separate but equal
•Legal or social practice of separation based on race or ethnicity
•Official U.S. policy until the 1960s
•Still evident in today's school, housing, and prisons
Origins of the "ghetto"
•"Great Migration" of blacks from South to North
•Neighborhoods exclude blacks
•"White flight" to suburbs
slums demolished for high-value developments, former slum dwellers move to housing projects
Mass killing of a population based on racial, ethnic, or religious traits
Negative thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group
Harmful or negative acts against people deemed inferior based on race
Sick role (Parsons)
-Not to perform normal social roles
-Not to be held accountable for their condition
-Try to get well
-Seek competent help, comply with doctor's orders
Social Construction of Illness
Definitions of health and sickness change by time and place
Process by which issues become framed as medical
Social determinate theory
Social status position can determine health
•Determines by genetics and environment
•Black women born in 1980s are ½" shorter than previous generation (1960s)
-Mid to low income only
•a study conducted on civil servants in Britain
•Lower status=higher rates of morbidity (illness) and mortality (death)
•Conclusion: stress from low social status leads to poor health
•Starkest differences are b/t whites and blacks
•Women live longer, Types of illnesses, Willingness to seek care, Married live longer
Married live longer
•Benefit greater for men
•Unclear whether marriage benefits health or if healthier people more likely to marry
The rate of death among infants
Whose ideas about private property and social conflict could be said to align most closely with those of Karl Marx?
Jean-Jacques Rousseau; Both thinkers believed that private property leads to social inequality.
What is an example of an asset?
a piece of property
Adam Ferguson and John Millar argued that inequality was
a prerequisite for social progress
free rider problem
the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to share responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight
What is an example of the free rider problem?
A group of six teenagers is trying to get 100 signatures for a petition in two weeks' time. They meet three days before the deadline to see how they are doing. Two of the teens have gotten 50 signatures between them. But the other four have only collected 25 signatures between, so they are still 25 signatures short. The two teens who collected the most signatures are irritated about the poor results from the other four.
a form of a religion-based system of stratification
Contradictory class locations
idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between the two "pure" classes
The 3 partners/owners of a small graphic design business fit into what Erik Olin Wright calls contradictory class locations b/c
the fact that they own their own business puts them in the capitalist class, but at the same time, they don't control the labor of others
In responding to surveys asking them to rank various occupations according to status, people say they place more emphasis on the _____ of the position than the position's _____
educational requirements; income level
a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement
C. Wright Mills
sees the consolidation of power among a small number of institutions and leaders as harmful to the interests of the masses
How did the post-World War II economic boom contribute to a "blurring of the lines" between the middle class and the working class?
Higher wages for working-class laborers gave these individuals greater access to markers of a middle-class lifestyle such as home ownership, a college education for their children, & more leisure time activities.
What has been the pattern in income growth among low-, middle-, and high-income earners in the United States over the past 30 years?
Income growth for high-income individuals has far outpaced that of middle- and low-income individuals
the mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy
The decline in manufacturing jobs and the growth of service sector jobs over the last 30 years creates opportunities for what kind of mobility?
help us to analyze individual mobility by comparing changes in occupational status between generations
occurs when some people move up into better jobs and others move down into worse ones, but the overall number jobs stays the same
a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility
The interview with Jeffrey Sachs highlights the structural, ecological, and historical aspects of global inequality. Industrialized nations have provided agricultural, medical, and other types of assistance to African nations to help improve economic conditions. What type of mobility might citizens of these nations experience as their country becomes more industrialized?
Michael Hout's interview on the value of a college degree explains the difficulties for certain families to sacrifice and send their children to college. In what way does policy help to reproduce increased social stratification instead of social mobility?
tuition hikes in the University of California system are a bigger burden for low- and middle-class families
argue that gender matters because it structures social relations between people
can be said to focus on the relationship between nature and nurture
When we look back in history to examine ideas about sex, we find that?
he binary sex system with which we are familiar has not always been the standard model
Which of the following statements offers an essentialist explanation for gender differences?
Women are overrepresented in professions such as nursing, teaching, and social work because they are inherently more nurturing and caring than men
a social construct that vary in different cultures
What does the existence of the nadle in Navajo tribes or the berdache in other Native American cultures teach us about gender?
Concepts of gender are not absolute and unchanging
Talcott Parsons's sex role theory
proposed that a healthy, harmonious society exists when women and men play distinctive roles that fulfill specific societal needs
a theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures (the family, the division of labor, or gender) which exist in order to fulfill some set of functions (reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc.)
Your introductory sociology professor believes that gender roles serve a purpose in society to fulfill certain functions. What type of theoretical background is your professor espousing?
associated with the idea that gender is a process—a product of our everyday social interactions
What is most closely associated with a conflict theory approach to gender studies?
Men benefit economically from women's inferior position in the family and the workplace
challenged the notion that all women experience oppression in the same way
argued that the development of homosexuality as a social identity was related to the development of states and scientific disciplines and a desire in both arenas to monitor and categorize people and their behavior
defined "pink-collar" jobs as feminized, low-paid secretary or service industry jobs
Which of the following jobs could be described as a "pink-collar" job?
According to some sociologists, what happens when the number of women in a given profession starts to increase?
The profession loses some of its desirability for men, so fewer men enter the profession and it eventually becomes dominated by women.
covert barriers that exist while policies that overtly discriminate against women have mostly been driven from the workplace
Women working in male-dominated professions often find that there are _____ opportunities for advancement, and men working in female-dominated professions often advance _____ their female colleagues.
limited; more quickly than
refers to a perceived trend among middle-class, career women to leave the workforce and concentrate on being wives and mothers
The interview with Paula England highlights the changing gender dynamics of relationships for college students. In what way have the female college students that Dr. England describes lost a level of equality with male college students?
Women encounter a lack of reciprocal sexual pleasure.
In the United States, the one-drop rule lumped together anyone with any amount of black blood into one category, black, setting up an essentially binary racial system of black and white, with little thought for other minorities such as Asians or Native Americans. In South Africa, on the other hand, there are four racial categories and in Brazil there are up to a dozen racial categories depending on whom you ask. What conclusion can we draw from these differences in racial categories?
Racial categories are social constructs, not biological absolutes that transcend time and place.
How was racism expressed in Ancient Greece?
There is no evidence that racism was a part of Ancient Greek culture.
the judgment of other groups by one's own standards and values
The Nazi regime's belief that it had to protect a superior race from contamination by inferior races stemmed in part from _____.
the notion of social Darwinism
How was the one-drop rule related to laws forbidding miscegenation in the United States?
The one-drop rule reinforced antimiscegenation laws because any offspring of a mixed-race union would be categorized as black.
What is an example of symbolic ethnicity?
A woman whose maternal grandparents came to the United States from Norway participates in a Norwegian folk dance group and bakes Norwegian pastries for special occasions.
Which ethnic group in the United States experienced the most dramatic forms of forced assimilation?
Why are Latinos sometimes referred to as an "in-between" ethnic group?
The Latino population in the United States is very diverse—a mix of European, indigenous, and sometimes even African roots. Sometimes Latinos are categorized as white and sometimes as a separate race.
Why are Asians considered a model minority group?
Compared to other minorities, the majority of Asians have achieved much success in the United States in terms of educational achievement and income.
What are the differences between Robert Park's and Milton Gordon's models of assimilation?
Park's model assumes that all immigrants reach the end stage; Gordon's model recognizes that some people may get stalled in the assimilation process.
one in which numerous distinct cultures engage and coexist peacefully within one large sociocultural framework
What factors contributes to the development of black ghettos in the United States?
public housing, redlining practices by federal loan agencies, white flight
refers to physical racial characteristics, mostly skin color
What is an example of passing?
A black woman always avoids the sun and uses various products that will supposedly lighten her skin.
an organized effort to change a power hierarchy on the part of a less-powerful group in society
A Muslim classmate from your introductory sociology course helps organize and participates in a march protesting discrimination against Muslim Americans on campus. Over 300 Muslim American students from area colleges show up to participate. What type of action is this representative of?
Ray is very disappointed that his daughter is marrying a Latino immigrant because he thinks Latinos are not very upwardly mobile and that they aren't supportive of women working and having successful careers. This is an example of _____.
The "new racism" couches its rhetoric in terms of _______ between groups rather than _____.
cultural differences; physical differences
least explored and perhaps the most striking of the disparities in social outcomes between blacks and whites in the United States
In her interview, Jen'nan Read describes the differences between Arab, an ethnicity, and Muslim, a religious categorization. As a group, Arab-Americans were mostly unnoticed in the United States until the terrorist attacks of 9/11. Since then, as the story of Zaid Ismail highlights, Arab-Americans have been the targets of racism and discrimination. What important sociological concept have Arab-Americans undergone as a group?
typically been seen as rather exclusive, however, new research suggests that the definition of "whiteness" is becoming increasingly inclusive
Jennifer Lee's interview on the changing racial makeup of the United States indicates that our society is moving from a white/non-white toward a black/non-black divide. In a way, this is a complete turnaround from the boundaries of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries known as what?
reward structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior
What is an example of a perverse incentive?
Entry to a special honors program is based solely on grades with no review of the types of classes students have taken. In order to increase their chances of being accepted into the program, some students take easier classes the semester before applying in order to boost their grade point average.
What question has been at the core of the debate about poverty in America for the last 40 to 50 years?
Does poverty cause social ills such as crime, poor educational outcomes, and divorce, or is it the result of such problems?
Why did the negative income tax experiment lead to more women leaving their marriages?
The guaranteed payment that people received through the program made some women feel financially independent enough to leave their husbands.
According to William Julius Wilson, how do factors such as deindustrialization, globalization, suburbanization, and discrimination contribute to high rates of welfare-dependent, single-mother families?
Such factors have contributed to a net shrinkage of the pool of employed, unincarcerated men, thus greatly limiting women's opportunity to find a stable life partner. Many women are compelled to go it alone because they cannot rely on support from a husband or boyfriend.
Raising the income limits on Medicaid
allows people to work low-paying jobs but still receive benefits that are necessary to their survival
What policies or practices can be linked most closely to helping welfare recipients transition to work?
raising the income limits on Medicaid
The Gautreaux Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the Moving to Opportunity study
provided opportunities to explore the effects on families of living in a low-poverty versus a high-poverty neighborhood
The Moving to Opportunity study found that families who moved from high-poverty to low-poverty neighborhoods experienced _____ changes with regard to daily stress and children's test scores, as well as _____ changes with regard to employment and earnings.
What is a criticism of how the poverty line is calculated in the United States?
The formula does not reflect that housing now takes up a much larger portion of family budgets.
Some theorists argue that there can never be an absolute definition of poverty
b/c poverty is always relational—a person is not poor in isolation but rather in comparison to someone else
What most accurately represents the relationship between the various elements that affect child outcomes, according to at least two main theories on the subject?
poverty ® conditions in the home ® parental behavior ® child outcomes
The main difference between the "no effect" paradigm and the material deprivation and parenting stress models of how poverty negatively affects children is
supporters of the "no effect" paradigm hold out little hope that much can be done to improve outcomes for poor children
The level of income inequality in the United States is
higher than that of all other developed countries
How has the timing of the transition to a free-market economy been used to explain the great differences between the United States and other industrialized nations in terms of inequality and poverty?
Institutions that could better protect the weak or disadvantaged were more fully developed in countries that transitioned to a free-market economy later than the United States did.
A city passes a law to ban cars in its largest park on the weekends in order to make the park more inviting to people who want to engage in sports and leisure activities. Which of the following could be described as an unintended consequence of the new law?
Businesses on the streets surrounding the park experience an increase in foot traffic and in sales, on Sundays in particular.
declared a "War on Poverty" and oversaw the creation of a wide range of programs intended to combat the causes, not just the consequences, of poverty