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George Marshall

United States secretary of state who formulated a program providing economic aid to European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan provided massive American economic assistance to help Europe recover from the war.

Women's Auxiliary Army Corps

women volunteers who seved in non-combat positions

A. Philip Randolph

America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.

Manhattan Project

Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

War Production Board

During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers

rationing

Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Omar Bradley

A general of the twentieth century. Bradley commanded the United States ground forces in the liberation of France and the invasion of Germany in World War II.

George Patton

Known as "Old Blood and Guts," George S. Patton, Jr. was one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.

Battle of the Bulge

December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.

V-E Day

Victory in Europe Day

Harry S. Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Douglas MacArthur

..., (1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

Chester Nimitz

..., Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.

Battle of Midway

..., U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.

kamikaze

a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II

J. Robert Oppenheimer

..., lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."

Hiroshima

..., City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II. (p. 797)

Nagasaki

..., Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).

Nuremberg trials

..., Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

GI Bill of Rights

..., Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business

James Farmer

..., organized CORE; racial equality; 1942 blacks move North; starts getting blacks to sit in an all white restaurant to protest

Congress of Racial Equality

..., CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.

internment

..., the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. We did it to Japanese-Americans in WWII because we thought they might be spies or something.

Japanese American Citizens League

..., founded in 1929 to protect Japanese Americans' civil rights, worked for decades to receive government compensation for property lost by Japanese Americans interned in camps during World War II.

United Nations

..., International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.

satellite nations

..., The Eastern European nations that remained under the control of the Soviet Union after the Second World War.

containment

..., A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances

iron curtain

..., Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.

Cold War

..., This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.

Truman Doctrine

..., First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.

Marshall Plan

..., Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.

Berlin airlift

..., Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

..., In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.

Chiang Kai-shek

..., General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong. (p. 788)

Mao Zedong

..., This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.

Taiwan

..., a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong

38th parallel

..., line of latitude that separated North and South Korea

Korean War

..., The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

House Un-American Activities Committee

..., an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to "House Committee on Internal Security".When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee

Hollywood Ten

..., Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood

blacklist

..., list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired

Alger Hiss

..., was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950

Ethel and Julius Rosenburg

..., Gave the Soviet Union important information on a top secret atomic bomb being built in the U.S.

Joseph McCarthy

..., 1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

McCarthyism

..., The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.

H-Bomb

..., hydrogen bomb invented in 1950's, MORE powerful than atomic bomb, example of Cold War arms race

John Foster Dulles

..., Eisenhower's Sec. of State; harsh anti-Communist; called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)

brinkmanship

..., A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests

Central Intelligence Agency

..., an independent agency of the United States government responsible for collecting and coordinating intelligence and counterintelligence activities abroad in the national interest

Warsaw Pact

..., treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

Eisenhower Doctrine

..., Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.

Nikita Khrushchev

..., ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation

Francis Gary Powers

..., pilot of the U-2 plane shot down by the U.S.S.R. (Yes, we were spying and were caught). He didn't die, but was captured. We had to negotiate to get him released. We exchanged Rudolph Abel (A USSR spy we captured) for him.

U-2 incident

..., The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

GI Bill of Rights

..., Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business

Suburbs

..., Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.

Dixiecrats

..., Were conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats.

Fair Deal

..., An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.

Conglomerates

..., Multi-interest and often multinational corporations that, under one corporate roof, may manufacture a wide variety of products.

franchise

..., a business established or operated under an authorization to sell or distribute a company's goods or services in a particular area

baby boom

..., An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.

Dr. Jonas Salk

..., developer of a vaccine to prevent polio

planned obsolescence

..., The practice of modifying products so those that have already been sold become obsolete before they actually need replacement.

Consumerism

..., An organized movement of citizens and government agencies to improve the rights and power of buyers in relation to sellers

mass media

..., Those means of communication that reach large audiences, especially television, radio, printed publications, and the Internet

Federal Communications Commission

..., an independent governmeent agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite

beat movement

..., a social and artistic movement of the 1950's stressing unrestrained literary self expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture

rock 'n' roll

..., became a popular music genre in the fifties with the introduction of Elvis Presley

jazz

..., a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles

urban renewal

..., Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

braceros

..., Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.

termination policy

..., 1953 gov eliminated economic support for native americans, stopped reservation system, redistributed tribal support

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