Ch. 7 - Biology 2404

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Chapter 7 - The Nervous System

Identify the three "overlapping" functions
of the nervous system.

SENSORY: SENSES CHANGES BOTH WITHIN
AND OUTSIDE THE BODY.
INTEGRATIVE: PROCESSES AND INTERPRETS
SENSORY INPUT AND MAKES DECISIONS
CONCERNING THE COURSE OF ACTION.
MOTOR: BRINGS ABOUT A RESPONSE TO
THE INTERPRETATION BY INITIATING AN
ACTION

Identify the two subdivisions of the
structural classification of the nervous
system.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) AND
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)

Identify two major organs of the central
nervous system

BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

Identify the two major classifications of
nerves that are directly connected to the
organs of the central nervous system

SPINAL AND CRANIAL

Identify the two subdivisions of the
functional classification of the peripheral
nervous system.

SENSORY (AFFERENT) AND
MOTOR (EFFERENT)

What does "afferent" mean?

SENSORY; CONVEYS IMPULSES TO CNS
FROM SENSORY RECEPTORS

Distinguish between somatic sensory fibers
and visceral sensory fibers. Which one
would let you "feel" or be aware of your
posture? Which one would let you know if
your stomach or urinary bladder were full?

SOMATIC SENSORY FIBERS CONVEY
IMPULSES FROM RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN,
SKELETAL MUSCLES, AND JOINTS; SOMATIC
WOULD MAKE YOU AWARE OF YOUR
POSTURE.
VISCERAL SENSORY FIBERS CONVEY
IMPULSES FROM RECEPTORS IN THE
VISCERA; VISCERAL WOULD LET YOU KNOW
IF STOMACH OR BLADDER WERE FULL

What does "efferent" mean?

MOTOR; CONVEYS IMPULSES FROM CNS TO
EFFECTOR ORGANS, MUSCLES AND GLANDS

Identify the two subdivisions of the
functional classification of the efferent
nervous system.

SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC

Distinguish between the somatic and the
autonomic nervous systems in regard to
organs controlled and whether the control
is voluntary or involuntary.

SOMATIC (OR VOLUNTARY) NERVOUS
SYSTEM: MOTOR FIBERS CONVEY
IMPULSES FROM THE CNS TO SKELETAL
MUSCLES
AUTONOMIC (OR INVOLUNTARY) NERVOUS
SYSTEM (ANS): MOTOR FIBERS CONVEY
IMPULSES FROM THE CNS TO SMOOTH
MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE, AND GLANDS

Identify the two subdivisions of the
functional classification of the autonomic
nervous system.

SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC

Identify the two principle types of cells
within nervous tissue.

NEURONS AND SUPPORTING CELLS CALLED
NEUROGLIA

What are neuroglia?

SUPPORTING CELLS IN THE CNS

What are glial cells?

NEUROGLIAL CELLS

Identify the four common glia in the central
nervous system.

ASTROCYTES, MICROGLIAL CELLS,
EPENDYMAL CELLS, OLIGODENDROCYTES

What are the general shape and common
functions of astrocytes?

ABUNDANT STAR-SHAPED CELLS THAT
ACCOUNT FOR NEARLY HALF OF THE
NEURAL TISSUE. BRACE AND ANCHOR
NEURONS TO BLOOD CAPILLARIES
FORMING A LIVING BARRIER BETWEEN
CAPILLARIES AND NEURONS AND PLAY
ROLE IN EXCHANGE; HELP PROTECT
NEURONS FROM HARMFUL SUBSTANCES.
RECAPTURE RELEASED
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND "MOPPING UP"
LEAKED POTASSIUM IONS

What are the general shape and common
functions of microglia?

SPIDERLIKE PHAGOCYTES DISPOSE OF
DEBRIS, INCLUDING DEAD BRAIN CELLS AND
BACTERIA

What are the general shape and common
functions of ependymal cells?

THEY LINE CENTRAL CAVITIES OF BRAIN
AND SPINAL CORD. THEIR CILIA HELPS TO
CIRCULATE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID THAT
FILLS THE CAVITIES AND FORM A
PROTECTIVE CUSHION AROUND CNS.

What are the general shape and common
functions of oligodendrocytes?

THEY WRAP THEIR FLAT EXTENSIONS
AROUND NERVE FIBERS, PRODUCING FATTY
INSULATING COVERINGS CALLED MYELIN
SHEATH.

Comparing neurons to neuroglia: Which
one is able to create impulses? Which one is
able to divide by mitosis?

NEUROGLIA DO NOT TRANSMIT NERVE
IMPULSES. NEURONS ARE NOT CAPABLE OF
CELL DIVISION (AMITOTIC).

What are gliomas?

TUMORS FORMED BY GLIAL CELLS

Identify the two common glia in the
peripheral nervous system.

SCHWANN CELLS AND SATELLITE CELLS

What is the common function of Schwann
cells?

FORM MYELIN SHEATH AROUND NERVE
FIBERS IN THE PNS

What is the common function of satellite
cells?

ACT AS PROTECTIVE, CUSHIONING CELLS

Which organelles are most common within
a neuron cell body?

CONTAINS 1 NUCLEUS WITH A NUCLEOLUS;
DOES NOT HAVE CENTRIOLES (SO CANNOT
MAKE MITOTIC SPINDLE); HAS TYPICAL
ORGANELLES INCLUDING ABUNDANT
ROUGH ER (NISSL SUBSTANCE) AND
INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS (NEUROFIBRILS)

What is Nissl substance?

ROUGH ER

What are neurofibrils?

INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IMPORTANT IN
MAINTAINING CELL SHAPE

Distinguish between dendrite and axon
processes by number and the direction of
the "signals" that each carries.

DENDRITES CONDUCT NERVE IMPULSES
TOWARD THE CELL BODY; AXON IS A SINGLE
STRUCTURE THAT CONDUCTS NERVE
IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE CELL BODY

Where specifically is an axon hillock
located?

CONE-LIKE REGION OF THE CELL BODY
FROM WHICH AXONS ARISE

Where are axon terminals located and how
many are there per axon?

ALL AXONS BRANCH PROFUSELY AT THEIR
TERMINAL END, FORMING HUNDREDS TO
THOUSANDS OF AXON TERMINALS

Where specifically are neurotransmitters
stored?

AXON TERMINALS CONTAIN SACS CALLED
VESICLES THAT STORE CHEMICAL
NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Where specifically are neurotransmitters
released?

EXTRACELLULAR SPACE (SYNAPTIC CLEFT)

What are the three structural components
of a synapse?

AXON TERMINAL, SYNAPTIC CLEFT, AND
NEXT NEURON

Describe the chemical characteristics of
myelin.

FAT CREATED BY OVERLAPPING CELL
MEMBRANES COMPOSED OF LIPIDS (THUS,
NOT WATER SOLUBLE)

Which part of a Schwann cell creates the
bulk of a myelin sheath?

NEURILEMMA

What does the neurilemma of the Schwann
cell contain that the myelin sheath of the
Schwann cell does not?

NUCLEUS AND CYTOPLASM

Where specifically are "nodes of Ranvier"
located?

GAPS IN THE SHEATH BETWEEN SCHWANN
CELL ALONG THE AXON IN THE PNS

Contrast the insulating method of Schwann
cells and oligodendrocytes.

ALTHOUGH THE MYELIN SHEATHS FORMED
BY OLIGODENDROCYTES OF THE CNS AND
THOSE FORMED BY SCHWANN CELLS ARE
SIMILAR, THE CNS SHEATHS LACK A
NEURILEMMA.

In multiple sclerosis which specific structure
of the nervous system is being attacked and
by what?

THE MYELIN SHEATHS AROUND THE FIBERS
ARE GRADUALLY DESTROYED, CONVERTED
TO HARDENED SHEATHS CALLED
SCLEROSES.

Distinguish between "nuclei" and ganglia.

NUCLEI ARE CELL BODIES FOUND IN THE
CNS IN CLUSTERS. IN THE PNS THE
CLUSTERS ARE CALLED GANGLIA.

Distinguish between tracts and nerves.

TRACTS ARE BUNDLES OF NERVE FIBERS
THROUGH THE CNS; NERVES ARE BUNDLES
OF NERVE FIBERS IN THE PNS.

Distinguish between the composition of
white and gray matter.

MYELINATED REGIONS OF THE CNS ARE
CALLED WHITE MATTER; UNMYELINATED
REGIONS ARE CALLED GRAY MATTER.

Identify the three functional classifications
of neurons.

SENSORY (OR AFFERENT), MOTOR (OR
EFFERENT), AND ASSOCIATION NEURONS
(OR INTERNEURONS)

What kind of information is carried by each
functional type of neuron? What is the
direction of this informational flow in each?

SENSORY NEURONS TRANSMIT IMPULSES
FROM SENSORY RECEPTORS TO THE CNS.
MOTOR NEURONS TRANSMIT IMPULSES
AWAY FROM THE CNS TO EFFECTORS
(MUSCLES OR GLANDS).
ASSOCIATION NEURONS CONNECT MOTOR
AND SENSORY NEURONS.

What is the specific function of
proprioceptors and where are they located?

DETECT THE AMOUNT OF STRETCH, OR
TENSION, IN SKELETAL MUSCLES, TENDONS,
AND JOINTS.

Identify the three structural classifications
of neurons.

MULTIPOLAR NEURONS: HAVE ONE AXON
AND MANY DENDRITES
BIPOLAR NEURONS: HAVE ONE AXON AND
ONE DENDRITE
UNIPOLAR: HAVE ONE SHORT PROCESS
THAT BRANCHES

What is the structural classification of
motor and association neurons?

MULTIPOLAR NEURONS INCLUDES MOST
OF THE NEURONS OF THE BRAIN AND
SPINAL CORD, ALL MOTOR NEURONS, AND
ALL ASSOCIATION NEURONS.

What are the structural classifications of
sensory neurons?

UNIPOLAR NEURONS INCLUDES SENSORY
NEURONS FOUND IN PNS GANGLIA.

In reference to neurons what are
"irritability" and "conductivity"?

EXCITABILITY OR IRRITABILITY: THE ABILITY
TO RESPOND TO A STIMULUS AND
CONVERT IT INTO A NERVE IMPULSE
CONDUCTIVITY: THE ABILITY TO TRANSMIT
THE IMPULSE TO OTHER NEURONS,
MUSCLES, OR GLANDS

Describe the relative concentration of
sodium and potassium ions across a
neuron's cell membrane when it is at rest
and polarized. Which side of the
membrane is more positive?

MAJOR POSITIVE IONS INSIDE CELL ARE
POTASSIUM (K+). MAJOR POSITIVE IONS
OUTSIDE CELL ARE SODIUM (NA+). THERE
ARE FEWER POSITIVE IONS ON INNER FACE
OF MEMBRANE THAN ON ITS OUTER FACE.

Describe the relative concentration of
sodium and potassium ions across a
neuron's cell membrane and the movement
of the ions when the membrane is
depolarizing. Which side of the membrane
is more positive?

GATES OF SODIUM CHANNELS OPEN AND
SODIUM DIFFUSES QUICKLY INTO NEURON
CHANGES THE POLARITY OF MEMBRANE
RESULTING IN DEPOLARIZATION. THE
INSIDE IS NOW MORE POSITIVE; OUTSIDE IS
LESS POSITIVE.

Describe the relative concentration of
sodium and potassium ions across a
neuron's cell membrane and the movement
of the ions when the membrane is
repolarizing. Which side of the membrane
is more positive?

ALMOST IMMEDIATELY AFTER SODIUM
IONS RUSH INTO NEURON, MEMBRANE
PERMEABILITY CHANGES AGAIN. THE
MEMBRANE BECOMES IMPERMEABLE TO
SODIUM IONS (NA+) AND BECOMES
PERMEABLE TO POTASSIUM IONS (K+). THIS
RESTORES THE ELECTRICAL CONDITIONS AT
THE MEMBRANE TO POLARIZED, OR RESTING STATE, IN REPOLARIZATION.

What specifically is an "all-or-nothing"
response?

THE NERVE IMPULSE IS AN ALL-OR-NONE
RESPONSE. IT IS EITHER CONDUCTED OVER
THE ENTIRE AXON, OR IT DOESN'T HAPPEN
AT ALL. THE NERVE IMPULSE NEVER GOES
PARTWAY ALONG AN AXON'S LENGTH, NOR
DOES IT DIE OUT WITH DISTANCE.

How does the arrival of a nerve impulse
affect a synapse?

CAUSES THE RELEASE OF
NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Does an impulse physically cross a synapse?

NO. THE IMPULSE STOPS AT THE PRESYNAPTIC MEMBRANE. A NEW IMPULSE
BEGINS AT THE POST-SYNAPTIC
MEMBRANE.

What is a reflex?

FAST, PREDICTABLE, INVOLUNTARY
RESPONSES TO STIMULI

Distinguish between the two types of
reflexes that occur within the body. Is
either type voluntary?

AUTONOMIC REFLEXES REGULATE SMOOTH
MUSCLES, HEART, AND GLANDS. SOMATIC
REFLEXES INVOLVE SKELETAL MUSCLES.
NEITHER ARE VOLUNTARY.

Identify the four common components of a
simple (2 neuron) reflex arc.

SENSORY RECEPTOR; SENSORY NEURON;
MOTOR NEURON; EFFECTOR ORGAN

Identify the five common components of a
complex (3+ neuron) reflex arc.

SENSORY RECEPTOR; SENSORY NEURON;
CNS INTEGRATION CENTER; MOTOR
NEURON; EFFECTOR ORGAN

Identify the four major regions of the brain.

CEREBRUM OR PAIRED CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES; DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN
STEM; CEREBELLUM

Distinguish between hemispheres, lobes,
sulci, gyri and fissures.

THE CEREBRUM IS SEPARATED INTO TWO
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES BY A
LONGITUDINAL FISSURE. EACH CEREBRAL
HEMISPHERE IS DIVIDED STRUCTURALLY
INTO LOBES, NAMED FOR THE CRANIAL
BONES THAT LIE OVER THEM (FRONTAL,
PARIETAL, TEMPORAL, AND OCCIPITAL).
THE ENTIRE SURFACE OF THE CEREBRUM
EXHIBITS ELEVATED RIDGES OF TISSUE
CALLED GYRI SEPARATED BY SHALLOW
GROOVES CALLED SULCI. DEEPER GROOVES
ARE CALLED FISSURES.

Identify the three basic regions of each
cerebral hemisphere

SUPERFICIAL CORTEX, INTERNAL WHITE
MATTER, AND BASAL NUCLEI

Identify some general "brain" functions
associated with the cerebral cortex.

SPEECH, MEMORY, LOGICAL AND
EMOTIONAL RESPONSE, CONSCIOUSNESS,
INTERPRETATION OF SENSATION, AND
VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT

What is the location and general function of
the primary somatic sensory area?

LOCATED IN THE PARIETAL LOBE
POSTERIOR TO THE CENTRAL SULCUS;
IMPULSES TRAVELING FROM THE BODY'S
SENSORY RECEPTORS (EXCEPT FOR THE
SPECIAL SENSES) ARE LOCALIZED AND
INTERPRETED HERE

What is the location and general function of
the primary motor area?

LOCATED ANTERIOR TO THE CENTRAL
SULCUS IN THE FRONTAL LOBE; ALLOWS US
TO CONSCIOUSLY MOVE OUR SKELETAL
MUSCLES

What is contained within a pyramidal tract?

MOTOR NEURONS FIBERS WHICH
DESCENDS TO THE CORD

What does a homunculus represent?

SPATIAL BODY MAP OR A CARTOON OF A
HUMAN THAT HAS BEEN DISTORTED TO
REPRESENT THE RELATIVE AMOUNT OF
CEREBRAL CORTEX ASSOCIATED WITH
SPECIFIC REGIONS OF THE BODY

What is the general location and function of
Broca's area?

A MOTOR AREA IN THE LEFT HEMISPHERE
ONLY; INVOLVED WITH STIMULATING THE
APPROPRIATE MUSCLES FOR SPEAKING.

Generally speaking which region of the
cerebrum "thinks": the gray matter or the
white matter?

GRAY MATTER

Describe the location, tissue composition
and general function of the corpus
callosum.

A VERY LARGE FIBER CONNECTING THE
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES THAT ALLOWS
THEM TO WORK TOGETHER; WHITE
MATTER

Describe the location and general function
of the basal nuclei.

ISLANDS OF GRAY MATTER BURIED DEEP
WITHIN THE WHITE MATTER OF THE
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE THAT HELP
REGULATE VOLUNTARY MOTOR ACTIVITIES
BY MODIFYING INSTRUCTIONS SENT TO THE
SKELETAL MUSCLES BY THE PRIMARY
MOTOR CORTEX.

Which region of the cerebrum is
malfunctioning in Huntington's disease and
Parkinson's disease?

BASAL NUCLEI

Where is the diencephalon located?

SITS ATOP THE BRAIN STEM AND IS
ENCLOSED BY THE CEREBRAL
HEMISPHERES.

Identify the three general structures within
the diencephalon.

THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS, AND
EPITHALAMUS

What is the general function of the
thalamus?

THE MAIN RELAY CENTER FOR ALL SENSORY
IMPULSES (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF
OLFACTORY) ON THE WAY TO THE
CEREBRAL CORTEX; CHANNELS INPUT TO
APPROPRIATE AREAS OF CEREBRUM

What are the general functions of the
hypothalamus?

PLAYS A ROLE IN THE REGULATION OF
BODY TEMPERATURE, WATER BALANCE,
AND METABOLISM. ALSO THE CENTER FOR
MANY DRIVES AND EMOTIONS, AND AN
IMPORTANT PART OF LIMBIC SYSTEM
(INCLUDING THIRST, APPETITE, SEX, PAIN,
AND PLEASURE CENTERS). REGULATES THE
PITUITARY GLAND WHICH IN TURN
REGULATES MUCH OF THE ENDOCRINE
SYSTEM

What is the limbic system?

EMOTIONAL-VISCERAL BRAIN INCLUDES
THIRST, APPETITE, SEX, PAIN, AND
PLEASURE CENTERS.

Identify the three regions of the brain stem.

MIDBRAIN, PONS, AND MEDULLA
OBLONGATA

Identify specific body functions controlled
by nuclei within the medulla oblongata.

MEDULLA IS AN IMPORTANT FIBER TRACT
AREA THAT CONTAINS MANY NUCLEI THAT
REGULATE VITAL VISCERAL ACTIVITIES. IT
CONTAINS CENTERS FOR HEART RATE,
BREATHING, BLOOD PRESSURE, VOMITING,
HICCUPPING, COUGHING, SNEEZING, AND
SWALLOWING.

Locate and describe the general function of
the cerebellum. What is the general effect
of alcohol on this region of the brain?

PROJECTS DORSALLY FROM UNDER THE
OCCIPITAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM;
PROVIDES THE PRECISE TIMING FOR
SKELETAL MUSCLE ACTIVITY; CONTROLS
OUR BALANCE AND EQUILIBRIUM.

What is ataxia?

IF THE CEREBELLUM IS DAMAGED (FOR
EXAMPLE, BY A BLOW TO THE HEAD, A
TUMOR, OR A STROKE), MOVEMENTS
BECOME CLUMSY AND DISORGANIZED.

Locate and identify the three meninges.

OUTERMOST DURA MATER, MIDDLE
ARACHNOID, AND INNERMOST PIA MATER

What is contained within the subarachnoid
space?

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CIRCULATES IN THIS
SPACE.

Which specific structures are affected by
meningitis? By encephalitis?

MENINGITIS: INFLAMMATION OF THE
MENINGES IS A SERIOUS THREAT TO THE
BRAIN BECAUSE BACTERIAL OR VIRAL
MENINGITIS MAY SPREAD INTO NERVOUS
TISSUE OF THE CNS.
ENCEPHALITIS: CONDITION OF BRAIN
INFLAMMATION.

Where specifically is cerebrospinal fluid
made from the blood and where is it
returned to the blood?

THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IS SECRETED BY
EPENDYMAL CELLS THAT REMOVE IT FROM
CAPILLARIES LOCATED IN THE VENTRICLES
CALLED CHOROID PLEXUSES.
FROM LATERAL VENTRICLES (1&2)  THIRD
VENTRICLE  CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT 
FOURTH VENTRICLE  SOME INTO
CENTRAL CANAL BUT MOST MOVES
THROUGH OPENINGS IN VENTRICLE INTO
SUBARACHNOID SPACE; IT IS RETURNED TO
THE BLOOD IN THE DURAL SINUSES

What is the general function of the
cerebrospinal fluid?

CUSHIONS AND NOURISHES THE BRAIN
AND SPINAL CORD

Identify and locate the four ventricles of the
brain.

TWO LATERAL VENTRICLES LOCATED IN
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES; THIRD VENTRICLE
IN THE DIENCEPHALON; FOURTH VENTRICLE
DORSAL TO THE PONS AND MEDULLA
OBLONGATE

What is hydrocephalus?

IF SOMETHING OBSTRUCTS ITS DRAINAGE,
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID BEGINS TO
ACCUMULATE AND EXERT PRESSURE ON
THE BRAIN

What is the general purpose of the bloodbrain barrier?

NEURONS ARE KEPT SEPARATED FROM
BLOODBORNE SUBSTANCES (SUCH AS,
UREA, TOXINS, PROTEINS, AND MOST
DRUGS) BY THIS BARRIER.

Which materials easily pass through the
capillaries of the blood-brain barrier?

WATER, GLUCOSE, AND ESSENTIAL AMINO
ACIDS

Distinguish between concussion and
contusion.

CONCUSSION: OCCURS WHEN BRAIN
INJURY IS SLIGHT; VICTIM MAY BE DIZZY OR
LOSE CONSCIOUSNESS BRIEFLY; NO
PERMANENT BRAIN DAMAGE
BRAIN CONTUSION: RESULT OF MARKED
TISSUE DESTRUCTION

Distinguish between intracranial
hemorrhage and cerebral edema.

INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGE: BLEEDING
FROM RUPTURED VESSELS THAT MAY
RESULT IN DEATH AFTER A HEAD BLOW
CEREBRAL EDEMA: SWELLING OF THE
BRAIN DUE TO INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
TO INJURY THAT MAY RESULT IN DEATH
AFTER A HEAD BLOW

Distinguish between CVAs and TIAs.

CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS (CVAS):
STROKE; THIRD LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH
IN U.S.; OCCURS WHEN BLOOD
CIRCULATION TO A BRAIN AREA IS BLOCKED
AND VITAL BRAIN TISSUE DIES
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA):
TEMPORARY BRAIN ISCHEMIA, OR
RESTRICTION ON BLOOD FLOW; LAST FROM
5-50 MINUTES AND CHARACTERIZED BY
SYMPTOMS, SUCH AS NUMBNESS,
TEMPORARY PARALYSIS, AND IMPAIRED
SPEECH

Which intellectual ability is affected by
sensory aphasia? Which communication
skill is lost with motor aphasia?

SENSORY APHASIA: PERSON LOSES ABILITY
TO UNDERSTAND WRITTEN OR SPOKEN
LANGUAGE; COMMON CAUSE IS DAMAGE
TO THE LEFT CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE
MOTOR APHASIA: DAMAGE TO BROCA'S
AREA WITH A LOSS OF ABILITY TO SPEAK;
COMMON CAUSE IS DAMAGE TO THE LEFT
CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE

How far does the spinal cord extend in the
vertebrae below the rib cage?

EXTENDS FROM THE FORAMEN MAGNUM
TO FIRST OR SECOND LUMBAR VERTEBRA

What is the cauda equina and where is it
located?

BUNDLE OF SPINAL NERVES AT THE
INFERIOR END OF THE SPINAL CORD.

What kind of information (sensory or
motor) is located in the dorsal root of a
spinal nerve and dorsal section of the spinal
cord?

SENSORY

What kind of information (sensory or
motor) is located in the ventral root of a
spinal nerve and ventral section of the
spinal cord?

VENTRAL

Distinguish between flaccid and spastic
paralysis.

FLACCID PARALYSIS: DAMAGE TO VENTRAL
ROOT RESULTS IN NERVE IMPULSES NOT
REACHING THE MUSCLES AFFECTED; NO
VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT OF THOSE
MUSCLES IS POSSIBLE; MUSCLES BEGIN TO
ATROPHY
SPASTIC PARALYSIS: CAN RESULT IF SPINAL
CORD IS TRANSECTED OR CRUSHED;
AFFECTED MUSCLES STAY HEALTHY
BECAUSE THEY ARE STIMULATED BY SPINAL
REFLEX ARCS, AND MOVEMENT OF THOSE
MUSCLES DOES OCCUR; MOVEMENTS ARE
INVOLUNTARY AND NOT CONTROLLABLE

Distinguish between endoneurium,
perineurium and epineurium. Which layer
specifically surrounds one fiber? One
fascicle? One nerve?

EACH FIBER IS SURROUNDED BY AN
ENDONEURIUM. EACH FASCICLE IS
SURROUNDED BY THE PERINEURIUM.
FASCICLES ARE BOUND TOGETHER BY AN
OUTER EPINEURIUM.

Distinguish between mixed, sensory, and
motor nerves.

SENSORY OR AFFERENT NERVES CONTAIN
ONLY SENSORY NERVE FIBERS.
MOTOR OR EFFERENT NERVES CONTAIN
ONLY MOTOR NERVE FIBERS.
MIXED NERVES CONTAIN BOTH SENSORY
AND MOTOR NEURON FIBERS.

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?

12 PAIRS

Which cranial nerve extends below the
neck?

CRANIAL NERVE X VAGUS

Which three cranial nerve pairs are not
mixed nerves but instead only sensory?

CRANIAL NERVE I OLFACTORY; CRANIAL
NERVE II OPTIC; AND CRANIAL NERVE VIII
VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 PAIRS

What kind of information do spinal nerves
carry? (sensory, motor, or both)

BOTH

Why is the parasympathetic nervous system
sometimes described as "craniosacral"?

BECAUSE ITS PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS
ARE IN BRAIN NUCLEI OF SEVERAL CRANIAL
NERVES (III, VII, IX, AND X) AND IN THE S2
THROUGH S4 OF THE SPINAL CORD

Which body organs are controlled by the
somatic nervous system?

SKELETAL MUSCLE

Which body organs are controlled by the
autonomic nervous system?

HEART, VISCERAL ORGANS, BLOOD VESSELS,
GLANDS

Why is the sympathetic nervous system
sometimes described as "thoracolumbar"?

BECAUSE ITS PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS
ARE IN THE GRAY MATTER OF THE SPINAL
CORD FROM T1 THROUGH L2

Although many internal organs receive both
sympathetic and parasympathetic signals
the blood vessels and the adrenal medulla
usually receive only ________ signals.
(sympathetic/parasympathetic)

SYMPATHETIC

Which division of the autonomic nervous
system is called the "fight-or-flight" system?
The "resting-and-digesting" system?

"FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT": SYMPATHETIC
"REST-AND-DIGESTING":
PARASYMPATHETIC

Distinguish between the effect of the
sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
in regard to heart rate, digestive activity,
breathing capacity, urine production, pupil
size and skin temperature.

SYMPATHETIC INCREASES AND
PARASYMPATHETIC DECREASES HEART
RATE.
SYMPATHETIC DECREASES AND
PARASYMPATHETIC INCREASES DIGESTIVE
ACTIVITY.
SYMPATHETIC PRODUCES RAPID, DEEP
BREATHING AND PARASYMPATHETIC
PRODUCES SHALLOW, SLOW BREATHING
RATES. SYMPATHETIC CONSTRICTS SPHINCTERS
AND PARASYMPATHETIC RELAXES
SPHINCTERS OF URINARY BLADDER AND
URETHRA.
SYMPATHETIC DILATES PUPIL AND
PARASYMPATHETIC CONSTRICTS PUPIL.
SYMPATHETIC: PRODUCES COLD, SWEATY
SKIN AND PARASYMPATHETIC PRODUCES
WARM SKIN TEMPERATURE.

In your opinion which system (sympathetic
or parasympathetic) would be more
commonly associated with: sleep,
excitement, eating, anger, depression,
apathy, embarrassment?

SLEEP: PARASYMPATHETIC
EXCITEMENT: SYMPATHETIC
EATING: PARASYMPATHETIC
ANGER: SYMPATHETIC
DEPRESSION: PARASYMPATHETIC
APATHY: PARASYMPATHETIC
EMBARRASSMENT: SYMPATHETIC

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