Psychiatry Vocab Symptoms and Disorders

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affect

external expression of emotion, or emotional response

amnesia

the loss of memory

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder that involves self-starvation, a distorted body image, and low body weight

anxiety disorders

Characterized by unpleasant tensions, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic distress disorder.

apathy

a lack of feeling, emotion, or interest

autism

A pervasive developmental disorder marked by severe impairments in social relationships and communication as well as bizarre behavior patterns.

bipolar disorder

A mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging and depression

cannabis

substance from which marijuana is made

compulsion

uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly

conversion disorder

condition marked by physical symptoms with no organic basis, appearing as a result of anxiety and unconscious inner conflict

defense mechanism

Unconscious technique (coping mechanism) that a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety.

delirium

confused thinking and disrupted attention usually accompanied by distorted speech and hallucinations

delusion

fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence

dementia

loss of intellectual abilities with impairment of memory, judgment, and reasoning as well as changes in personality.

depression

Major mood disorder with chronic sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement and, commonly, suicidal impulses and thoughts.

dissociative disorder

Chronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity, or consciousness; examples are multiple-personality disorder and psychogenic amnesia.

ego

Central coordinating branch of the personality or mind.

fugue

flight from customary surroundings; dissociative disorder

gender identity disorder

Strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.

hallucination

false sensory perception (hearing voices and seeing things)

id

Major unconscious part of the personality; energy from instinctual drives and desires.

labile

unstable; undergoing rapid emotional change

mania

Extreme excitement, hyperactive elation, and agitation. Don't confuse with the suffix -mania, meaning obsession.

mood disorders

prolonged emotion dominates a person's life

mutism

nonreactive state with inabililty to speak (aphonia)

obsessive-compulsive disorder

anxiety disorder in which recurrent thoughts and repetitive acts dominate behavior

paranoia

overly suspicious system of thinking; fixed delusion that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated

paraphilia

Recurrent, intense sexual urge; fantasy or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities and situations.

personality disorders

lifelong personality patterns marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning

pervasive developmental disorders

group of childhood disorders characterized by delays in socialization and communication skills; autism and Asperger syndrome are examples

phobia

an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity

post-traumatic stress

Anxiety related symptoms appear following exposure to personal experience of a traumatic event

projective (personality) test

diagnostic personality test using unstructured stimuli (inkblots, pictures abstract patterns, incomplete sentences) to evoke responses that reflext aspects of an individual's personality

psychiatrist

a professional who earned a medical degree (M.D.) and complete a residency in psychiatry. Specialists in working with people with major psychological disorders - they are schooled in the biomedical model which focuses on the physical processes thought to underly mental and emotional disorders.

psychologist

a nonmedical doctor of psychology who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

psychosis

a disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations

reality testing

psychological process that distinguishes fact from fantasy; severely impaired in psychosis

repression

Defense mechanism by which anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings are forced to the unconscious.

schizophrenia

a disorder characterized by severe disturbances in thinking, mood, awareness, and behavior

sexual disorder

Paraphilias and sexual dysfunction

somatoform disorder

presence of physical symptoms that cannot be explained by an actual physical disorder or other well-described mental disorder such as depression

substance-related disorder

regular overuse of psychoactive substances (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, opoids, and sedatives) that affect CNS

superego

Internalized conscience and moral part of the personality.

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