# Science Test

## 74 terms

### Thermal Energy

all of the kinetic energy in an object

### Temperature

the average of the kinetic energy in an object

### not affected

Temperature is (affected, not affected) by mass

### affected

Thermal energy is (affected, not affected) by mass

### Heat

the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures

### hot to cold

Heat is transferred from (hot to cold, cold to hot).

### Thermometer

temperature is measured using a ________

### alcohol

(alcohol, water, mercury) is the best liquid to use in a thermometer.

### Thermal expansion

the increase in volume of a substance due to an increase in the temperature of the object

### 212

boiling point on Fahrenheit is ______ degrees

### 32

freezing point on Fahrenheit is ______ degrees

### 100

boiling point on Celsius is _______ degrees

### 0

freezing point on Celsius is _______ degrees

### 373

boiling point on Kelvin is _________

### 273

freezing point on Kelvin is _________

### degrees

the Celsius scale uses units called _____

### absolute zero

the temperature in which all molecular motion stops

### True

True or False: A change in temperature of one degree Celsius differs from a change in temperature of one degree Fahrenheit.

### different

in order for heat to be passed between two objects, the objects must have (the same, different) temperatures

### more

A large bowl of soup will have (more, less, the same) thermal energy than a small bowl of soup at the same temperature.

### conduction

energy transfer using direct contact

### convection

energy transfer through liquids or gases

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

### infrared

a ______ wave is an electromagnetic wave that transfers heat

### conductor

an object that transfers heat/energy well

### insulator

an object that doesn't transfer heat/energy well

### lower

thermal conduction occurs when particles with higher average kinetic energies transfer energy through collisions to particles with (the same, higher, lower) kinetic energies.

### less

when you heat something, the object becomes (more, less) dense because the temperature of the particles increases and, as a result of their increased energy, they spread apart

### convection current

the circular motion of a liquid or a gas due to a density difference that results from temperature differences within the liquid or gas

### electromagnetic waves

two examples of _____ ____ are visible light and infrared waves

### greenhouse

_____ gases cause the temperature of Earth's atmosphere to increase because they trap greenhouse gases, causing all of the heat energy to remain on the earth

### specific heat

the amount of energy needed to heat up something

### joules

heat is measured in ______

### size

the two factors of specific heat are: _____ and the change in temperature

### bimetallic

a _____ strip is a strip of two different metals

### thermal conductivity

the rate at which a substance conducts thermal energy

### kg

specific heat is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a 1 (kg,hg,dag,g,dg,cg,mg) substance by 1 degree Celsius

### metals

the specific heat values of most ______ tend to be high

### positive

when the value for heat is ______, it means that energy has been transferred from an object, so that the object's temperature has increased

### passive

_____ solar heating is a type of solar heating in which there are no moving parts; windows facing south in the northern hemisphere

### active

______ solar heating uses pumps and fans to distribute the sun's energy; hot water heating system

### Calorie

unit of energy that is often used to measure chemical energy in food = 4184j

### Calorimeter

instrument used to measure Calories

### Greek model

the _______ _____ of the atom states that the atom is indivisible and that fire, water, air, and earth do not make up all matter

### Modern Theory

the ____ _____ of the atom states that electrons travel in an electric cloud

### Bohr Model

the _____ ____ of the atom states that electrons travel in specific energy levels

### Thomson's Model

_______ ______ of the atom was the first model to use electrons (subatomic particles)

### Rutherford's Model

______ ______ of the atom was the first to include a nucleus

### Rutherford

______ discovered that an atom is made of mostly empty space and that high speed particles could not fly through gold foil

### Dalton's Model

______ ______ of the atom stated that the atom is indivisible, that an atom of one substance is different than another, and that atoms can be joined to make a new substance

### neutron

a subatomic particle with no charge that is found in the nucleus

### proton

a subatomic particle with a positive charge that is found in the nucleus

### 1

a proton and a neutron both have a mass of (0,1,2) amu

### 0

an electron has a mass of (0,1,2) amu

### electron

a subatomic particle with a negative charge that is found in electron clouds

### neutral

the charge of an atom is ______ when the number of protons = the number of electrons

### ion

an atom with a charge

### positive

a _____ charge is formed when you take away electrons from a neutral atom

### negative

a ______ charge is formed when you add electrons to a neutral atom

### isotope

a(n) ________ is an atom which has a change in its number of neutrons

### masses

different isotopes of a substance have different ______

### weak force

a force that lets the nucleus of an atom fall apart

### strong force

a force that overcomes the repulsion of protons and lets the nucleus stay together

### gravitational force

the force that has the least affect on the atom

### electromagnetic force

a force which holds electrons around the nucleus, causes protons to repel protons, and causes protons to be attracted to electrons

### mass number

to find an element's ____ ____ you add the number of protons and electrons

### on the top

the atomic number can be found (on the top, in the middle, on the bottom) of an element's box in the periodic table

### on the bottom

the atomic mass can be found (on the top, in the middle, on the bottom) of an element's box in the periodic table

### atomic number

the number of protons is equal to the (atomic mass, atomic number)

### protons

the number of electrons is the same as the number of (neutrons, protons)

### atomic mass

to find the amount of neutrons in an object, round the (mass number, atomic mass) and subtract it from the atomic number

### 2

in Bohr's model, the first energy level can only have (2,4,6,8) electrons

### 8

in Bohr's model, the second energy level can only have (2,4,6,8) electrons

### change in temperature

heat(j) = specific heat (j/kg * degrees celsius) x mass(kg) x ______ _____ ______