ch 21

Created by lahski 

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Capillaries that have a complete lining are called
ANSWER:
fenestrated capillaries.
continuous capillaries.
sinusoidal capillaries.
vasa vasorum.
sinusoids.

b

After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the
ANSWER:
arteries.
capillaries.
arterioles.
venules.
veins.

d

Which layer of a blood vessel contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle tissue?
ANSWER:
external elastic membrane
tunica externa
internal elastic membrane
tunica media
tunica intima

d

Which of the following is the innermost layer of a blood vessel?
ANSWER:
tunica externa
tunica intima
tunica media
external elastic membrane
internal elastic membran

b

What structure do RBCs move through single file?
ANSWER:
capillary
vein
venule
artery
arteriole

a

Which kind of vessel is also called a resistance vessel?
ANSWER:
artery
vein
capillary
venule
arteriole

e

Which of the following lumen diameters would be typical of a muscular artery?
ANSWER:
1.0 cm
0.4 mm
0.4 cm
1.5 cm
0.2 mm

c

What vessels hold the largest percentage of the blood supply?
ANSWER:
venule
artery
vein
capillary
arteriole

c

Blood moves forward through veins because of all of the following, except
ANSWER:
valves in the veins preventing the backward flow of blood.
pumping by the smooth muscle in the wall of the vein.
the respiratory pump.
the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries.
muscular compression.

b

Metabolites exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?
ANSWER:
vein
capillary
venule
arteriole
artery

b

Which part of the vascular system functions as a blood reservoir and contains over 60% of the body's blood?
ANSWER:
arteries
pulmonary arteries
capillaries
systemic arterioles
veins

e

The main control of peripheral resistance occurs in the
ANSWER:
veins.
arterioles.
arteries.
capillaries.
venules.

b

In the condition known as ________, the wall of an artery becomes thicker and stiffer.

arteriosclerosis

In the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by __________.
Hint A.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
blood pressure
proteins in the blood

a

The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________.
Hint B.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
interstitial fluid; capillary
capillary; interstitial fluid

b

Which of the following would reflect the typical net hydrostatic pressure (HP) at the arterial end of the capillary?
Hint C.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
1 mm Hg
34 mm Hg
12 mm Hg

Correct

c

The colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary is caused by __________.
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
blood pressure
proteins in the blood

b

Which net pressure draws fluid into the capillary?
Hint E.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
net hydrostatic pressure
net osmotic pressure

b

Reabsorption of fluid into the capillary takes place at the arterial end or venous end of the capillary?
Hint F.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
venous
arterial

a

Resistance is a force that
ANSWER:
never changes in a blood vessel.
acts with pressure to move blood along a vessel.
is always higher than blood pressure.
decreases blood flow.
increases blood flow.

d

Total peripheral resistance is related to all of the following, except the
ANSWER:
blood viscosity.
osmolarity of interstitial fluids.
blood vessel diameter.
length of a blood vessel.
turbulence.

b

Blood pressure is determined by
ANSWER:
estimating the pressure needed to close off an artery with an external pressure cuff.
measuring the size of the pulse.
estimating the degree of turbulence in a partly closed vessel.
measuring the force of contraction of the left ventricle.
listening carefully to the pulse.

a

Which of the following factors will increase the net filtration pressure to move fluid out of capillaries?
ANSWER:
increased tissue hydrostatic pressure
decreased plasma albumen
increased blood hydrostatic pressure
both decreased plasma albumin and increased blood hydrostatic pressure
increased plasma albumen

d

Blood pressure is lowest in the
ANSWER:
arterioles.
venules.
arteries.
capillaries.
veins.

e

Which of the following affects blood flow through the body?
ANSWER:
vessel diameter
vascular resistance
turbulence
blood viscosity
All of the answers are correct.

e

If blood pressure doubled, the blood flow through a vessel would be
ANSWER:
four times greater.
doubled.
1/4 as much.
unchanged.
halved.

b

Each of the following factors would increase cardiac output, except
ANSWER:
increased sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
stimulation of the heart by epinephrine.
decreased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
increased blood concentration of glucose.
increased venous return.

d

Turbulent blood flow occurs
ANSWER:
when blood pressure is excessively high.
at high flow rates.
when there are irregularities in the vessel wall.
when there are sudden changes in vessel diameter.
All of the answers are correct.

e

Edema may occur when
ANSWER:
the plasma concentration of protein is reduced.
blood pressure is high.
endothelial permeability goes up.
capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.
All of the answers are correct.

e

The blood colloid osmotic pressure mostly depends on the
ANSWER:
concentration of plasma glucose.
concentration of plasma waste products.
concentration of plasma proteins.
number of red blood cells.
concentration of plasma sodium ions.

c

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ________ pressure.
ANSWER:
pulse
mean arterial
circulatory
critical closing
blood

a

When renin is released from the kidney,
ANSWER:
blood pressure goes down.
angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I.
angiotensin I increases salt reabsorption at the kidneys.
blood flow to the kidneys decreases.
angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II.

b

Each of the following will lead to a decrease in blood pressure, except
ANSWER:
decreased peripheral resistance.
release of renin.
increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).
decrease in blood volume.
decreased levels of aldosterone.

b

Each of the following will cause an increase in blood pressure, except
ANSWER:
increased levels of angiotensin II.

increased blood volume.

increased levels of ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide).

increased levels of aldosterone.

increased levels of ADH (antidiuretic hormone).

c

In comparison to a vessel with a large diameter, a vessel with a small diameter has
ANSWER:
the same amount of pressure as resistance.
less resistance to blood flow.
a greater blood flow.
a greater resistance to blood flow.
a higher blood pressure.

d

Blood colloid osmotic pressure is produced by:
ANSWER:
hypertonic solutions separated by a cell membrane
the force of blood pushing against the vessel wall
osmosis of water
large non-diffusible proteins in the blood plasma
a greater salt concentration in blood cells

d

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) decreases in starving children because:
ANSWER:
starvation in children results in a protein deficiency and the liver cannot produce enough protein to maintain BCOP
the question statement is false, BCOP actually increases in starving children
starvation increases the permeability of capillaries causing a decrease in BCOP
malnourished children do not exercise, which results in a decrease in BCOP
starvation increases blood pressure which, in turn, decreases BCOP

a

Some of the fluid that is forced out of capillaries is returned to the blood by the:
ANSWER:
muscular arteries
liver
lymphatic system
venules
hepatic portal vein

c

Which of the following opposes the flow of blood back to the heart?
ANSWER:
vascular resistance
muscular pumps squeeze veins and move blood toward the heart
blood pressure
peripheral veins have valves to prevent backflow of blood
blood press

a

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?
Hint A.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
carotid sinus and aortic arch
cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

a

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?
Hint B.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
decreased PNS activity and increased SNS activity
increased PNS and SNS activity
increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

c

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?
Hint C.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
decreased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system

b

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?
Hint D.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
a decrease in cardiac output
vasodilation of arteries
a decrease in blood pressure
an increase in heart rate and contractility

d

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?
Hint E.1
Hint not displayed

ANSWER:
a decrease in cardiac output
vasodilation of arterioles
an increase in heart contractility
a decrease in heart rate

d

Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased
ANSWER:
blood volume.
sodium ion levels in blood.
blood pressure.
salt and water loss through the kidneys.
venous return and preload.

d

When carotid and aortic baroreceptors slow their discharge,
ANSWER:
the heart rate will decrease to lower blood pressure.
both heart rate and stroke volume increase.
stroke volume increases.
heart rate decreases.
heart rate increases.

b

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased
ANSWER:
cardiac output.
heart rate.
parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.
sympathetic stimulation of the heart.
blood flow to the lungs.

c

Vickie has a tumor that secretes excess amounts of the hormone aldosterone. Because of the elevated level of hormone, she exhibits
ANSWER:
increased body stores of sodium ion.
polycythemia.
decreased blood volume.
increased blood pressure.
both an increase in blood pressure and an increase in stored sodium ion.

e

ADH and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for
ANSWER:
hypertension.
a heart attack.
prolonged exercise.
a serious hemorrhage.
a heavy meal.

d

Homeostatic mechanisms in response to blood loss include all of the following, except
ANSWER:
increased thirst and water intake.
activation of ADH secretion.
inhibition of EPO secretion.
uptake of interstitial fluid due to reduced capillary pressure.
activation of aldosterone secretion.

c

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