is change over time due to mutations
the idea that life could could arise from non-living matter
the idea that life can only come from pre-existing life
Branch of biology that deals with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life
Founder of Taxonomy?
the study of fossils
Law of superposition
in undisturbed rock layers, the oldest rocks are on the bottom and the youngest rocks are on the top
Evolution and change occured due to small changes over time. Proposed by James Hutton
Proposed that change occured in starts and fits
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
Traits that are attained (gained) are passed on to offspring. Proposed by Jean Baptiste Lamarck.
Darwin's 5-part Theory of Evolution
1. There are variations in populations
2. Some variations are better than others.
3. More are produced that can survive.
4. The ones that survive have the best adaptations (survival of the fittest
5. Over time favorable adaptations will become common while unfavorable adaptations will become less common.
The process by which organisms with variations are favored by their enviorment, allowing them to survive and reproduce.
Migrations of Individuals between populations (moves DNA around)
changes in DNA sequence
is when a population changes due to chance
Occurs when a few individuals from a larger population colonize an isolated island or new habitat. Changes the variation in a population
Evidence for Evolution
II. Homologous Structures
III. Vestigial Structures
Study of external and internal structures of an organism
The study of similarity
Body parts of an organism that have the same internal structure.
Structures found in some organisms even though they may have no use for the structure
Study of early growth stages and the development of embryos
Study of organic molecules that make up an organism. All organisms use DNA or RNA to carry information. Tbe more similar the DNA or RNA is between organisms, the more closely related the organisms are to each other.
All of the genes, including all of the different alleles, present in a population
How often an allele occurs in a specific gene pool. Allele for Blue eyes in the human gene pool may appear about 25% while brown eyes appear 75% of the time.
Evolution as defined by genetics
Any changes in the relative frequency of alleles in a population
How do genetic variations arise?
Mutations and Gene Shuffling
Single Gene Trait
A trait controlled by a gene that has two alleles
A trait controlled by a gene that has more than two alleles
When individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or the other end of the curve.
When individuals at the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve.
When individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve.
states that the percentage of each allele in a population will remain the same unless something causes it to change.
When the presence of each allele remains constant in a population
Five Conditions for Genetic Equilibrium
1. Random Mating
2. The population must be very large.
3. There can be no movement in or out of the population.
4. There can be no mutations.
5. There can be no natural selection.
Group of organisms that breed with one another and can produce fertile offspring
The formation of a new species
When members of two populations can not mate and produce fertile offspring.
When two populations are capable of mating but have different courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies involving behavior (for example- different bird songs)
Two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or other bodies of water.
When two or more species will reproduce at different times of the day, month, year, etc.