Chapter 22 Bio

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Evolution

specific: a change over time in the genetic composition of a population; broad: populations change over generations

Aristotle and Scala Naturae

Viewed species as fixed and unchanged

The Old Testament

Species were individually designed by God, and thus perfect

Carolus Linnaeus

Developed taxonomy, which would classify the diversity of God

Georges Cuvier

Believed in catastrophism, and not in evolution

Explain the role of fossils in rock strata as a window to life in earlier times

Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past. Because rocks are in layers, time periods can be divided into such layers, and thus the gradual changes in creatures over time periods can be observed

How would Georges Cuvier have explained the appearance of the record of life shown in rock strata

Catastrophism: each boundary represents a catastrophe that destroyed many of the species at the time.

James Hutton

Gradualism: Earth's geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms currently operating in the world

Charles Lyell

Uniformitarianism: same geological processes are operating today as in the past at the same rate

What is the importance of uniformitarianism?

It implied that the world is much older than was believed at the time.

Use and disuse

Parts of the body that are used extensively become bigger and stronger; those not used would deteriorate

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

Organisms could pass on modifications (from use and disuse) to their offspring

What is considered to be the great importance of Lamarck's ideas?

The importance was that variation was introduced through inheritance

What are adaptations? Give two examples.

Characteristics of organisms that enhance survival. Differing beak variations, color of body (aposematic coloration)

Natural selection

Individuals with certain inherited traits leave more offspring than individuals with other traits

Variations in traits exist

large beaks v small beaks

Variations are heritable

Large beaked birds that reproduce with large beaked birds will most likely have large beaks

Species overproduce

e. Coli will divide non stop so long as they are moved to allow for more space and waste is removed

This competition for resources; not all offspring survive

Those HIV viruses that are not resistant to particular bacteria die out

What are two inferences that Darwin made?

1) Descent with modification explains life's unity and diversity. 2) Natural selection brings about the match between organisms and their environment

____ do not evolve, ______ evolve

Individuals... Populations

What is the role of 3TC in inhibiting HIV reproduction?

3TC is inserted instead of cytosine which inhibits gene expression because the genetic code cannot be used properly.

Do antibiotics cause bacteria to become resistant?

No, but it selects for resistant individuals

What are four evidences for evolution?

Fossil record, homologous structures, analogous structures, vestigial structures

How does the fossil record give evidence for evolution?

Past organisms differ from present day organisms and many species have become extinct

Example of Homologous structures

Bat wings and whale fins

Example of Vestigal structures

Snakes having vestiges of the pelvis and leg bones

Analogous structures

Sugar glider and the flying squirrel

How do homologous structures give evidence for evolution?

They imply a common ancestor from which the organisms evolved

What is summarized in an evolutionary tree

Evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms

What is indicated by branch points?

Common ancestor of the lineage

What is indicated by the hatch marks?

Homologous characteristics shared by the group

Are crocodiles more closely related to lizards or to birds?

Birds, both are amniotes

Explain convergent evolution and describe how analogous structures can rise

Independent evolution of similar features in different lineages is convergent evolution. Analogous structures can rise when different organisms from different lineage face similar problems

Two examples of convergent evolution

Sugar glider and flying squirrel; bird wing and butterfly wing

What is biogeography? How is it affected by continental drift?

Study of the biographic distribution of species. Continental drift makes continents shift which can make it more difficult to analyze biogeography.

Endemic species

Species that are found nowhere else on earth

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