Describe the function of the Axial Skeleton
protects and houses organs, helps in respiration
Name the bones of the cranium (PEST OF 6)
Parietal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid, Temporal, Occipital, Frontal
Name the Five Major Sutures (Laura Still Finds Sarah Creepy)
Lambdoidal, Sagittal, FronoNasal, Squamosal, Coronal
What does the Lambdoidal Suture connect?
Occipital and Parietal
What does the Sagittal Suture connect?
Parietal and Parietal
What does the FronoNasal Suture connect?
Frontal and Nasal
What does Squamosal Suture connect?
Temporal and Parietal
What does the Coronal Suture connect?
Frontal and Parietal
What two structures are found on the Frontal Bone?
Supraorbital margin, Supraorbital Foramen
What does the Frontal Bone Articulate? (P.E.T.S L.M.N.Z)
parietal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid, nasal, lacrimal, maxillary, and zygomatic bones
What is the frontal bone?
forehead and roof of orbits
What six structures are found on Occipital Bone? (F.O.E C.H.N)
Foramen Magnum, Occipital Condyles, External Occiptal Protuberance, Hypoglossal Canals, Condyloid Foramen, Nuchal Lines
What is the Occipital Bone?
inferior and posterior most of the skull
What does the Occipital Bone articulate? (P.T.S)
temporal, parietal, and sphenoid bones
What are the four portions of the Temporal Bone? (Patrisha Smells Tuna and Mayonnaise)
Squamous, Tympanic, Mastoid, and Petrous
What are the two structures of the Squamousal portion of the temporal bone?
Zygomatic process, Mandibular Fossa
What is the structure on the Tympanic Portion of the Temporal Bone?
External Acoustic Meatus
What are the four structures on the Mastoid Portion of the Temporal Bone?
Mastoid Process, Mastoid Foramen, Styloid Process, Stylomastoid Foramen
What are the five structures on the Petrous Portion of the Temporal Bone? (Anderson Cooper Inhales JuJu)
Auditory Ossicles, Jugular Foramen, Jugular Fossa, Carotid Canal, and Internal Acoustic Meatus
What are the three types of auditory ossicles?
Malleus, Incus, Stapes,
What are the eleven structures of the Sphenoid Bone? (Remember a Motorcycle or Gary Likes Sally, Dennis Obsess Sarah, Fletcher Falls For Fred Perywinkle)
Greater and Lesser wings, Sella Turcica, Dosum Sellae, Optic Canal, Superior Orbital Fissue, Foramen Rotundum, Foramen Ovale, Foramen Spinosum, Foramen Lacerum, Pterygoid Processes
What bones do the parietal bones articulate? (FOTS)
occiptal, temporal, sphenoid, and frontal
What bones does the Sphenoid Bone Articulate? (Max and Virgil Play Zoro)
every other cranial bone, palatine, zygomatic, maxillae, and vomer
What does the ethmoidal bone articulate? For the Sake of Love, Please Make Vinegar)
frontal, sphenoid, maxillae, lacrimal, palatine, and vomer
What are the three parts of the Ethmoid Bone? (Crazy Lady's Palace)
Cribiform plate, Lateral Masses, and Perpendicular Plate
What are the structures on the Lateral masses of the Ethmoid Bone?
Superior and Middle Concha
What structures can be found in the Cribriform Plate of the Ethmoid Bone?
Name the Facial Bones (Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh)
Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Mandible, Maxillae, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal
What structures can be found in Maxillary Bones? (Individual Intense Arrow ForePlay)
Alveolar Processes, Incisive Foramen, Infraorbital Foramen, Frontal Process, Palatal Process
What two structures can be found in the palatine bone?
horizontal plate, and greater palatine foramen
What structure can be found in the Zygomatic Bone?
What nine Structures can be found in the Mandibular Bone? (But Ramsy Always Critiques Cory's Mint Mince Melon Alright?)
Body, Ramus, Angle, Coronoid process, condylar process, mandibular notch, mental foramen, mandibular foramen, alveolar processes
What are the Paranasal Sinuses? (FEMS)
Frontal, Ethmoidal, Sphenoid, and Maxillary
What are the functions of the Paranasal Sinuses?
reduces weight of the skull, allows air to resonate for voice production
What are fontanels?
unfused bones of the skull found in infants younger than one year old
Name each section and the amount of bones in the vertebral column.
Cervical Vertebrae, Thoracic Vertebrae, Lumbar Vertebrae, Sacral, and Coccyx
How many bones total are in the Vertebral Column?
Where is the Cervical Vertebrae? How many bones?
Where is the Thoracic Vertebrae? How many bones?
Where is the Lumbar Vertebrae? How many bones?
Where is the Sacrum?
Base of spine
Where is the Coccyx?
Name the Curvatures of the Spine.
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral
What does the Primary Curvature consist of? When does it develop? What is the function?
Thoracic and Sacral
developed at birth
allows organ development
What does the Secondary Curvature consist of? When does it develop? What is the function?
Cervical and Lumbar
develops Infant-Toddler years
head support and bipedal walking
What is The Atlas? What region of the Vertebral Column? What is special about this specific part of the column? What does it articulate? What does it allow?
C1, Cervical Spine
articulates with Occipital Condyles
Does not have a body
What is the Axis? What region of the vertebral column? What is special about this specific part of the column? What does it articulate? What does it allow?
C2, body is fused with the atlas
contains "Dens" instead of intervertebral disk
How can you tell the difference between Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar vertebrae?
the body gets thicker and more heart shaped as it goes down.
What is the Intervertebral Disk? What makes up these disks?
cartilaginous pad located between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae
consists of nucleus puposus, surrounded by anulus fibrosus
What is the Centrum of the Vertebral Column?
the body of a single vertebrae
mass of spongy bone and red bone marrow covered with a thin shell of compact bone
What is the Vertebral Foramen?
triangular space in the middle of the vertebral column
What is the Vertebral Canal?
collection of vertebral foramina
What is the Vertebral Arch?
composed of pedicle and lamina
What is lamina?
thin layer of bone
What is Pedicle?
stalky structure connecting two structures
What is the transverse process?
extends laterally from the point where pedicle and lamina meet
What is the Spinous Process?
extending from the apex os the arch between lamina and lamina
What is the function of the spinous and transverse process?
point of attachment for ligaments, ribs, and spinal muscles
What is the Superior Articular Process?
projects upward from one vertebra and meets a similar pair of inferior articular process that meets downward
the gap between two pedicles when two foramen meet
What is Dens? Where is it found?
prominent anterior knob only
Axis, or C2
What is Atlanto-Occipital Joint?
articulation bewteen atlas and cranium
What is Atlantoaxial joint?
articulation between the Atlas and the Axis
What does the Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone make up?
Superior portion of the nasal septum
What is the Vertebral Prominens? Why is this bone special?
is a cervical bone, but looks more like a thoracic bone
What is the Thoracic cage made up of? What is the function?
Thoracic vertebrae, Sternum, and Ribs
Protects the heart, lungs, thymus, and other structures within
Serves as attachment sight for muscles involved in respiration, positioning the vertebral column, and movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb
What is the Sternum? What are the three regions?
Manubrium, Gladiolus, and Xiphoid Process
What is the Supersternal notch? What is another name for this? What levels of the vertebrae does it lie on?
curvature of the superior portion of the manubrium
T3 and T4
What are Sternoclavicular notches?
Curvature of the superior, left and right portions of he manubrium
What is the gladiolus? What levels of the vertebrae does it lie?
dagger-body of the sternum
What is the Sternal Angle?
where the Manubrium and Gladiolus meet
What is the Xipihoid Process? What level of the vertebrae does it lie?
pointy end of the Sternum
What are "True Ribs"?
What are "False Ribs"?
What are "Floating Ribs"?
How many pairs of ribs are in the thoracic cage?
What is the Pectoral Girdle made of?
Clavicle and Scapula
What are the structures of the clavicle? (Sand At Cony's Coast)
Sternal and Acromial Ends, Conoid, and Costal Tubercles
What tubercle is near the Sternal end of the Clavicle?
What tubercle is near the Acromial end of the Clavicle?
How can you tell the difference between the Sternal and Acromial Ends of the Clavicle?
Sternal end is pointy, Acromial end is round
What are the specific structures of the Scapula? (Anderson Cooper Gets Sleepy At StarBucks)
Acromion, Caracoid process, glenoid cavity, Suprascapular notch, superior and inferior angles, spine, and superior, medial, and lateral borders
What structures are located at the Superior border of the Scapula? (SAC)
Acromion, Caracoid Process, and Suprascapular Notch
What does the Medial Border articulate?
What does the Lateral Border acticulate?
What does the Glenoid Process articulate with?
head of the humerous
What structures can be found at the lateral border of the scapula?
Glenoid and Suprascapular fossa
What is the function of the appendicular skeleton?
gives control over environment, allows running, manipulation, operation
What do the upper limbs consist of? (BAC-MP)
Brachium, Antebrachium, Carpals, Metacarpals,and Phalanges
What is the Brachium?
What is the Antebrachium?
Ulna and Radius
What are the Carpals?
What makes up the hand?
metacarpals and phalanges
What supports the Scapula?
What is the only DIRECT connection between Axial Skeleton and Pectoral Girdle?
What is the sole BRIDGE between axial and appendicular skeleton? What is the joint?
Acromion of the Scapula and Clavicle
What structures articulates the Clavicle with the Sternum?
Sternal end of the Clavicle, Clavicular Notch of the Manubrium. Attached together by the Sternoclavicular Joint
What are the structures of the Humerus? (He Told Dan "Everyone's Called Tommy Cat")
Head, Greater and Lesser Tubercle, Deltoid Tuberosity, Medial and Lateral Epicondyles, Capitulum, Trochlea, Coronoid Fossa, and olecranon fossa
How do you tell the difference between left and right humerus?
Left's head point right
Right's head points left
What are the structures of the Radius? (He Needs Stella's Radiance)
Head, Neck, Styloid Process, and Radial tuberosity
What are the structures of the Ulna? (Old Trash, Cold Rash, Sold)
Olecranon Process, Trochlear notch, Coronoid Process, Radial notch, styloid process
What are the structures of the Proximal Row of the Carpal Bones? (Some Loves Try Positions)
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform
What are the structures of the Distal Row of the Carpal Bones? (That They Can't Handle)
Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
How do you number the Metacarpal and Phalanges?
From thumb to pinky
What are the proper names for Phalanges from bottom to top, then thumb to pinky
bottom to top: Proximal, Middle, and Distal
What is the pelvic girdle composed of? (Old Irate Inglewood Punks)
Os Coxae, illium, ischium, and pubis
What structures found in the Os Coxae?
Acetabulum, obturator foramen, greater and lesser sciatic notch
What is the Acetabulum?
What structures are found in the Ilium?
Iliac crest, iliac tuberosity, anterior and posterior iliac spine
Where do Sacrum and Ilium meet?
Sacroiliac joint, where both auricular sufaces meet
Where do L5 and S1 meet?
Where does the Sacral Lead to?
What structures found in the Ischium?
Ischial Tuberosity, Ischial Spine, and Ramus of Iscium
What is the Pelvic Outlet?
What is The Pelvic Inlet?
What are the structures of the Pubis?
Ramus of Pubis, Pubic Symphysis, Pubic Tumercle
What is the pubic symphysis?
cartilage that holds the pelvis together
What is the function of the pelvic girdle?
supports and protects the lower viscera and developing fetus in females
What are the lower limbs made of?
femur, patella, tibia and fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges
How can you tell the difference between male and female Pelvises?
Male: Prominent markings, narrower, heart shaped inlet, smaller outlet
Female: smoother, wider inlet, larger outlet, more circular
What are the features of the Femur? (He Needs To Line People Into 2 Lover's Crest)
Head, Neck, Trochanters, intertrochanteric line and crest, linea aspera, condyles, patellar surface, and intercondylar fossa
What are the features of the Tibia? (TIM C.)
Condyles, Intercondylar Eminence, Tibial Tuberosity, Medial Malleous
What are the features of the Fibula?
head, lateral malleous
What are the features of the Tarsus? (M.I.L.C Needs To Contain Calcium)
Medial, Lateral, and Intermediate Cuneiform, Navicular, Talus, Cuboid, Calcaneus,
What makes up the distal group of the Tarsal Bone? (M.I.L.C Calcium)
Medial, Lateral, Intermediate Cuneiform, Cuboidal
What makes up the proximal group of the Tarsal Bone? (Needs to Contain)
Navicular, Talus, Calcaneus
How many bones are in the Metatarsals and Metacarpals?
How many bones are in the Phalanges?
How many bones are in the Tarsus?
How many bones are in the Carpals?
What is the function of the longitudinal arch in the foot?
distributes the body's weight and absorbs the stress of walking