a family of compunds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. They are classified by their solubility in water. (Also includes the fat-soluble vitamins)
an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogens attached and an acid group (COOH) at one end and a methyl (CH3) at the other end.
monounsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons-for example, oleic acid. Composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids or monounsaturated.
point of unsaturation
the double bond of a fatty acid, where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure.
polyunsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds between carbons-for example linoleic acids, a fatty acid that lacks 4 or more H atoms & has 2 or more double bonds between C's (Ex: linoleic acid (2 double bonds) and Linolenic acid (3 double bonds)
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms - stearic acid
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that lack hydrogen atoms and has atleast one double bond between carbons
omega-3 fatty acid
an unsaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the THIRD carbon from the methyl end (-CH3)
omega-6 fatty acid
a polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is six carbons from the methyl end of the carbon chain
Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body
a chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds making it more solid and more resilient to oxidation.
similar to triglycerides but have a phosphate group and choline in place of one of the fatty-acids
a nitrogen containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methione. Is part of the phospholipid lecithin and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
lipids that are composed of three six carbon rings and one five carbon ring fused together forming the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts and many hormones such as cortisols, estrogens, androgens, and progesterones
the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids form the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles the rest of the body
VLDL; type of lipoprotein made primarily by the liver cells to transport lipids to various tissue cells in the body; composed primarily of triglycerides
LDL; derived from VLDL lipoproteins as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol
HDL; lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells; composed primarily of protein
essential fatty acids
fatty acids needed by the body but not made by it in amounts sufficient enough to meet physiological needs
polyunsaturated, an omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, cholesterol control: omega 3 fatty acids
Derived from arachidonic acid (a 20 carbon fatty acid); regulates blood pressure, blood clotting, and other bodily functions
LPL; , an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into the cells, where they can be metabolized for energy or reassembled for storage.
blood lipid profile
results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol, trigycerides, and various lipoproteins.
ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy
zero energy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities of naturally occuring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion
a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acids that provides o kcalories per gram also know as sucrose polyester
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Fatty acids and triglycerides are composed of __________, ___________, and ___________