Nutrition - Chpt. 5 Lipids

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some definitions and quesitons

Lipids

a family of compunds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. They are classified by their solubility in water. (Also includes the fat-soluble vitamins)

fats

lipids that are solid at room temperature

oils

lipids that are liquid at room temperature

fatty acid

an organic compound composed of a carbon chain with hydrogens attached and an acid group (COOH) at one end and a methyl (CH3) at the other end.

monounsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons-for example, oleic acid. Composed of triglycerides in which most of the fatty acids or monounsaturated.

point of unsaturation

the double bond of a fatty acid, where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure.

polyunsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lacks four or more hydrogen atoms and has two or more double bonds between carbons-for example linoleic acids, a fatty acid that lacks 4 or more H atoms & has 2 or more double bonds between C's (Ex: linoleic acid (2 double bonds) and Linolenic acid (3 double bonds)

saturated fatty acid

A fatty acid carrying the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms - stearic acid

unsaturated fatty acid

a fatty acid that lack hydrogen atoms and has atleast one double bond between carbons

linoleic acid

Fatty acid with 18 carbons and two double bonds (Omega-6)

linolenic acid

an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and three double bonds (Omega-3)

omega-3 fatty acid

an unsaturated fatty acid with the first double bond on the THIRD carbon from the methyl end (-CH3)

omega-6 fatty acid

a polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is six carbons from the methyl end of the carbon chain

triglycerides

Lipids containing a glycerol molecule attached to three fatty acid chains; chemical form in which most fats exist in food and in the body

glycerol

A three-carbon alcohol used to form triglycerides

oxidation

the process of a substance combining with oxygen; resulting in a loss of electrons

antioxidants

prevents delays oxidation

hydrogenation

a chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds making it more solid and more resilient to oxidation.

trans-fatty acid

fatty-acids with hydrogens on the other side of the double bonds

phospholipid

similar to triglycerides but have a phosphate group and choline in place of one of the fatty-acids

lecithin

a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats

choline

a nitrogen containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methione. Is part of the phospholipid lecithin and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

sterols

lipids that are composed of three six carbon rings and one five carbon ring fused together forming the basic structure for cholesterol, bile salts and many hormones such as cortisols, estrogens, androgens, and progesterones

cholesterol

one of the sterols containing a four ring carbon structure with a carbon side chain

plaque

accumulation of fatty deposits

atherosclerosis

type pf artery disease characterized by plaques on the inner wall

hydrophobic

non-water soluble

hydrophilic

water soluble

monoglyceride

glycerol with one fatty acid attached

micelles

tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion

chylomicrons

the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids form the intestinal cells to the rest of the body

lipoproteins

clusters of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles the rest of the body

Very-low-density lipoproteins

VLDL; type of lipoprotein made primarily by the liver cells to transport lipids to various tissue cells in the body; composed primarily of triglycerides

low-density lipoproteins

LDL; derived from VLDL lipoproteins as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down; composed primarily of cholesterol

high-density lipoproteins

HDL; lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells; composed primarily of protein

adipose tissue

the body's fat tissue; consists of masses of triglyceride-storing cells

adipokines

proteins synthesized and secreted by adipose cells

essential fatty acids

fatty acids needed by the body but not made by it in amounts sufficient enough to meet physiological needs

arachidonic acid

A polyunsaturated fatty acid, 20 carbons, 4 double bonds, omega-6 fatty acid

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid; polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3, 5 double bonds, 20 carbons

DHA

polyunsaturated, an omega-3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms and 6 double bonds, cholesterol control: omega 3 fatty acids

eicosanoids

Derived from arachidonic acid (a 20 carbon fatty acid); regulates blood pressure, blood clotting, and other bodily functions

lipoprotein lipase

LPL; , an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into the cells, where they can be metabolized for energy or reassembled for storage.

hormone-sensitive lipase

The enzyme that breaks down the triglycerides stored in adipose tissue.

blood lipid profile

results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol, trigycerides, and various lipoproteins.

cardiovascular disease

a disease of the heart or blood vessels

fat replacers

ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy

artificial fats

zero energy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities of naturally occuring fats but are totally or partially resistant to digestion

olestra

a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acids that provides o kcalories per gram also know as sucrose polyester

95%

Of the lipids in food, what percent are triglycerides?

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

Fatty acids and triglycerides are composed of __________, ___________, and ___________

Glycerol, fatty-acids

Triglycerides are composed of _________ and _______

Omega

The position of the double bond is determined by the ________ number.

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