Biology exam 3 ch. 28

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Which of the following is true?

1. Microalgae are structurally more complex than cyanobacteria.

2. Cyanobacteria are structurally more complex than microalgae.

3. Microalgae and cyanobacteria are structurally the same, but perform photosynthesis differently.

4. Microalgae and cyanobacteria are the same thing.

1. Microalgae are structurally more complex than cyanobacteria.

What is the source of carbon in carbon fixation?

1. carbon monoxide

2. glucose

3. carbon dioxide

4. methane gas

3. carbon dioxide

Currently, most viable use of algae ponds is where?

1. coal-fired power plants

2. landfills

3. hazardous waste sites

4. wastewater treatment plants

4. wastewater treatment plants

One of the major downsides to farming cyanobacteria is that they require vast quantities of what?

1. carbon monoxide

2. glucose

3. oxygen

4. water

4. water

Which group was not described in Woese's tree of life analysis?

1. Prokarya

2. Eukarya

3. Bacteria

4. Archaea

1. Prokarya

Prokarya was not one of the groups described in Woese's tree of life analysis.

What characteristics were used to classify organisms before Woese's tree of life analysis?

1. Number of cells in the organism

2. Composition of the cell wall

3. Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus

4. Differences in ribosomal RNA sequences

3. Presence of a membrane-bound nucleus

Before the tree of life analysis, organisms were classified as prokaryotes if they lacked a membrane-bound nucleus or eukaryotes if they possessed a membrane-bound nucleus.

True or false? Data showing that the Bacteria were the first lineage to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms suggest that the Archaea and Eukarya are more closely related to each other than they are to the Bacteria.

1. True

2. False

1. True

Which of the following statements about phylogenetic trees is true?

1. A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

2. A paraphyletic group has not experienced lateral gene transfer.

3. A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

4. A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral population and all of its descendants

1. A paraphyletic group consists of a common ancestor and some of its descendants.

This statement is true; the common characteristics of a paraphyletic group may have arisen from lateral gene transfer to some, but not all, lineages.

Which molecule did Carl Woese study to produce his tree of life?

1. Ribosomal RNA

2. Messenger RNA

3. Ribosome

4. DNA

1. Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal RNA was the molecule used to produce Woese's phylogeny because it evolves slowly and is critical to the function of the ribosome, which serves the same function in all three domains in the tree of life.

What is lateral gene transfer?

1. Inheritance of a gene through meiosis

2. Inheritance of a gene through mitosis

3. Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

4. Inheritance of a gene from a parent

3. Physical transfer of a gene from a species in one lineage to a species in another lineage.

Lateral gene transfer is the physical transfer of a gene between distantly related lineages

What is the best evidence that all life evolved from prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic ancestors?

1. The oldest fossil form of life known is prokaryotic.

2. Prokaryotes possess flagella.

3. Bacteria are unicellular.

4. Prokaryotes possess peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

1. The oldest fossil form of life known is prokaryotic.

Prokaryotes appear 3.5 BYA whereas Eukaryotes do not appear until 1.75 BYA.

If Bacteria and Archaea in a 1-square-meter plot of soil were killed, what would happen?

1. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere would drop.

2. Most of the animals on the plot would die.

3. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere would increase.

4. Most of the plants on the plot would die.

4. Most of the plants on the plot would die.

Nearly all plants depend on the nitrogen fixation of Bacteria and Archaea in the soil.

Robert Koch is best known for which of the following contributions?

1. discovery of Archaea

2. discovery of Bacteria

3. identifying distinctions between Bacteria and Archaea

4. establishing a link between bacteria and disease

4. establishing a link between bacteria and disease

Molecular phylogenies were first used to separate bacterial and archaeal lineages based on the sequence data from which of the following molecules?

1. rRNA

2. photosynthetic pigments

3. metabolic enzymes

4. cell-wall carbohydrates

1. rRNA

Methanotrophs are so named because they _____.

1. produce methane gas

2. produce ammonia

3. consume methane gas

4. consume ammonia

3. consume methane gas

Methano- refers to methane and -troph refers to feeding.

What is the electron acceptor for humans in the electron transport chain?

1. water

2. oxygen

3. sugars

4. sulfate

2. oxygen

We breathe in oxygen to convert sugars into energy

The Gram stain is commonly used to classify a bacterial isolate into one of two groups, based on the characteristics of which of the following structures?

1. pilus

2. cell wall

3. plasma membrane

4. flagellum

2. cell wall

Organisms that synthesize their own food from simple starting materials are named _____, whereas those that absorb ready-to-use compounds are _____.

1. autotrophs; heterotrophs

2. phototrophs; autotrophs

3. lithotrophs; chemotrophs

4. chemotrophs; heterotrophs

1. autotrophs; heterotrophs

Which character separates Bacteria from Archaea?

1. Bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell wall.

2. Bacteria have circular chromosomes.

3. Bacteria do not have a nuclear envelope.

4. Bacteria are unicellular.

1. Bacteria have peptidoglycan in their cell wall.

This is a key distinguishing feature between Bacteria and Archaea.

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