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Test 2-21-2012

virus

disease causing, nonliving particles composed of an inner core of nucleic acids surrounded by a capsid

host cell

living cell in which a virus replicates.

baceteriaphage

also called phages, viruses that infect and destroy baceteria.

capsid

outer coat of proteins that surrounds a virus's inner core of nucleic acid.

lytic cycle

viral replication in which a virus takes over a host cell's genetic material and uses the host cell's structure and energy to replicate until the host cells burst, killing it.

lysogenic cycle

ciral replication cycle in which the virus's nucleic acid is integregated into a host cells chromosome.

provirus

viral DNA that is integregated into a host cells chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates.

retrovirus

type of viral replication where a virus uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA from viral RNA.

reverse transcriptase

enzyme carried in the capsid of a retrovirus that helps produce viral DNA for viral RNA

prion

a virus like infectious agent composed of only protein with no genetic material.

vivroid

virus like infectious agent that is composed of only a single, circular strand of DNA.

chemosynthesis

autotrophic process wehre organisms obtain energy from the breakdown of inorganic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen.

binary fussion

asexual reproductive process in which one cell divides into tow seperate genetically identical cells.

conjugation

form of sexual reproduction in some baceteria where on baceteriam transfers all of part of its genetic material to another.

obligate aerobes

baceteria that require oxygen for cellular respiration.

obligate anerobes

baceteria that are killed by oxygen and can survive only in oxygen free enviornments.

endospore

structural formed by baceteria during inffavorable conditions that caontains DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm encased by a protective outer covering.

toxin

poison produced by a baceterium.

nitrogen fixation

metabolic process in which baceteria use enzymes to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia.

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