forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people
Newspapers that, because of technological innovations in printing, were able to drop their price to one cent, therefore making papers affordable to working and middle classes and enabled newspapers to become a genuine mass medium
an agency to collects news reports for newspapers and distributes it electronically
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
the use of in depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams and schemes which at times puts the reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders
an independent governmeent agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite
Equal Time Provision
the former requirement that television stations give or sell the same amount of time to all competing candidates
forms of mass communication such as newspaper or telivision with wide public consumption
unauthorized (especially deliberate) disclosure of confidential information. Valerie Plame case.
state laws that protect journalists from having to reveal their sources.
The idea that many Americans acquire political information unintentionally rather than by seeking it out
the influence of news sources on public opinion.
The influence on public opinion that results from journalists' and editors' decisions about which of many potential news stories to report.
The imbalance in a story that covers one candidate or policy favorably without providing similar coverage of the other side.
the influence on the public's general impressions caused by positive or negative coverage of a candidate or issue.
The influence on public opinion caused by the way a story is presented or covered, including the details, explanations, and context offered in the report.
The current era of media coverage that seizes upon any bit of information or rumor that might call into question the qualifications or character of a public official.
A close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.
media coverage that aims to entertain or shock often through sensationalized reporting or by focusing on a candidate or politicians personality.
Media coverage focused on facts and important issues surrounding a campaign.
5 Stage Media Model
Event, Sources, Reporter, Editor, Audience
Journalists chose what events to provide to you/cover.
Journalists choose interviews
Journalists choose words.
Choose what to run and how to present it.
Audience chooses what to hear and what to believe.