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Protestant Reformation

the movement in which it was thought that the Catholic church needed to be revived; leaders included Martin Luther, John Calvin, and King Henry VIII

Martin Luther

German monk who said that the Bible alone was the source of God's word; started Protestant Reformation; nailed his 95 Theses to the door of the Catholic church

John Calvin

Protestant leader from Geneva who created the dominant religion of American settlers; wrote his theories in Institutes of the Christian Religion

Institutes of the Christian Religion

written in 1536 by John Calvin; proposed predestination ("elect" souls were destined for heaven)

predestination

a belief in Calvinism which states that the "elect" souls were destined for heaven, while others were destined for hell

the "elect"

those destined for heaven; in accordance with Calvinism

Calvinism

sect of Puritanism created by John Calvin; dominant religion of American settlers; belief in predestination

Separatists

sect of Puritanism that did not want the "saints" to go to church with the "damned" (as was the case with the Church of England); broke away from the Church of England

Mayflower

boat (headed by Captain Myles Standish) which carried the English Separatists from Holland to America (Plymouth Bay)

Dutchification

Separatists who left England for Holland in 1608 were worried that this was affecting their children

Mayflower Compact

document signed by members on the Mayflower which agreed to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon (one of the first forms of self-government in America)

Puritans

Christian denomination that broke away from the Catholic church during the Protestant Reformation; wanted to revive Catholic church

Church of England

created by King Henry VIII when he broke ties with the Roman Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation

Plymouth Bay

where the pilgrims aboard the Mayflower landed

Pilgrims

English Separatists who left Holland for America and landed in Plymouth Bay

William Bradford

elected governor of Plymouth; feared non-Puritan settlers

Bible Commonwealth

another name for the Massachusetts Bay Colony because of religious drive

Massachusetts Bay Colony

settled in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans

John Winthrop

first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony; helped start economy

"city upon a hill"

what John Winthrop called Massachusetts Bay Colony because he thought it would serve as a religious model for mankind

freemen

the only people who could vote in the Massachusetts Bay Colony; adult, Puritan males

"visible saints"

those who were clearly part of the "elect"; alone were eligible for church membership (therefore, the right to vote)

John Cotton

clergyman in Massachusetts Bay Colony; defended government's duty to enforce religious rules

Roger Williams

wanted a clean break with the Church of England and thought the Massachusetts Bay Colony was unfair to Indians and said government shouldn't regulate religious behavior; banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635; arrived in Rhode Island in 1636 and built a Baptist church; made complete freedom of religion and sheltered Jews, Catholics, and Quakers

Anne Hutchinson

woman in Massachusetts Bay Colony who preached idea of antinomianism; 1638, banished and forced to walk to and settle in Rhode Island

antinomianism

the belief that holy life was no true sign of salvation and the saved didn't have to follow laws of God or man; preached by Anne Hutchinson

General Court

the representative assembly of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Squanto

Wampanoag Indian (in Plymouth Bay) who knew English from previously being captured by an Englishman; he helped keep peaceful relations between the English and the Wampanoag for the time being

Reverend Thomas Hooker

leader of Boston Puritans, who swept in and took control of the Connecticut River Valley

Fundamental Orders

1639, constitution of Connecticut in which the regime was democratically controlled by citizens

Massasoit

chief of Plymouth area Wampanoag; signed treaty with Plymouth Pilgrims in 1621 and helped them celebrate first Thanksgiving

King Phillip (Metacom)

son of Massasoit; forged inter-tribal alliance and assaulted frontier settlements (pushed settlers back to Boston); this slowed English westward march in New England and drastically reduced threat of Indians

Sir Ferdinando Gorges

tried to colonize Maine in 1623

New England Confederation

inter-colonial alliance formed in 1643 between Bay Colony, Plymouth, New Haven, and scattered Connecticut valley settlements; purpose was to provide defense against Indians, French, and Dutch; each colony had two votes; first united representative government in America

Dominion of New England

1686, created by crown (included NY and East and West Jersey) for protection against Indians and to promote English Navigation Laws; inter-colonial alliance imposed by England

Navigation Laws

English laws that ended legal trade between colonies and non-English countries; resulted in resentment and smuggling

Sir Edmund Andros

English-placed leader of the Dominion of New England; despised for affiliation with Chruch of England and for heavy restrictions (taxation without representation); sent back to England by Boston mob

Glorious Revolution

took place in England in 1688-1689; bloodlessly replaced Catholic James II with Protestant Dutch William II and English May (daughter of James II); inspired colonists to the point that a Boston mob sent Andros back to England

William and Mary

Protestant Dutch King and English Queen (daughter of James II) who replaced Catholic James II as monarchs of England during the Glorious Revolution

salutary neglect

new monarchs (William and Mary) relaxed grip on colonial trade; colonies had to rely on themselves and got a taste of independence

Henry Hudson

Dutch-hired English explorer who ventured into Delaware and NY bay and Hudson River in 1609

Dutch West India Company

company in Caribbean that raided and traded; also in Africa and in sugar industry in Brazil; established colony in New Netherland (Hudson River) for fur; also bought Manhattan from Indians

Peter Stuyvesant

one Dutch directors-general in New Netherland (NY) who fought off Swedes and surrendered to English

Quakers (Religious Society of Friends)

religious group that arose in England in the mid 1600s who were politically and religiously offensive to officials

William Penn

fled to New World for religious freedom (since he was a Quaker), liberal government, and money; secured grant of Pennsylvania in 1681

William Laud

reactionary Puritan Archbishop who was persecuted in 1629 when Parliament was dismissed by Charles I; lead Puritans to America, fearing for their faith

Gustavus Adolphus

Swedish king who carried the torch for Protestantism during the Thirty Years' War of 1618-1648; this motivated the Swedes to enter the colonial game in America, particularly in New York

Myles Standish

Captain on the Mayflower; he later rendered indispensable service as an Indian fighter and negotiator

Michael Wigglesworth

New England clergyman who wrote the popular poem "Day of Doom", which told the horrifying fate of the damned

franchise

an authorization to sell a company's goods or services in a particular place

conversion

a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life

doctrine of a calling

Puritan belief that they are responsible to do God's work on earth

convenant

enter into a formal agreement; promise

sumptuary laws

laws aimed at making sure pleasures stayed simple by repressing certain human instincts; also known as "blue laws"

passive resistance

peaceful resistance to a government by refusing to cooperate; part of Quaker belief system, esp. in regards to war

Great Migration

of the 70,000 who emigrated from England in 1630-1642, 20,000 went to New England while 48,000 went to the West Indies

Protestant ethic

part of Puritanism in the Bay Colony; involved serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits

French Huguenots

one group of Puritan American settlers who were Calvinists

Scottish Presbyterians

one group of Puritan American settlers who were Calvinists

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