A radical German philosopher who deemed himself a nihilist. Developed a distinction between the Apollonian (rational) and Dionysian (primal) sides of the brain. Believed that people generally cling to the rational explanations for things because Dionysian explanations are too disturbing. Emphasized in the fact that all his theories were personal opinions not world truths. Claimed "God is Dead." Meant that the human-created idea of god has declined as a tool for the powerful to use. Claimed that people were only powerful "supermen" if they were not religious; the rules and beliefs of the church kept people weak and obedient.
German-Swiss Physicist who published his theory of relativity in the early 1900s. Claimed that space and time are not absolute categories but instead vary according to the vantage point of the observer. Only the speed of light is constant. Later modified to connect the force, or gravity, of an object with its mass and postulated a mathematical dimension to the universe. Coined E=mc^2. (Though not accepted at first, he became a major factor in the scientific paradigm shift of the late 1800s and early 1900s.)
Influenced by French artist, Paul Cezanne, this Spanish painter helped create cubism. Painted "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon." Was considered impressionist and a bit fauvist. Influenced by African and Asian art, he brought knowledge of the imperial empire in through disturbing ways.
Russian activist who would take power in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Began his rise to power by establishing the Bolshevik Party.
Radical female suffragist; convinced that only aggressive tactics would bring victory--peaceful efforts didn't work; smashed and burned buildings to get the attention of the gov't, which supposedly only cared for property; founded the Women's Social and Political Union.
The disorienting revolution of ideas and creative expression launched by intellectuals and artists. Deliberate departure from tradition and the use of innovative forms of expression.
An artistic movement in France beginning in 1907 that featured surfaces of geometrical planes that distorted people into bizarre almost unrecognizable forms. Founded by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
The minority party that opposed the Bolsheviks; wanted peaceful socialism; were disorganized.
People who oppose organized government. Led terrorist attacks on all of Europe and in the US during this time period.
People who worked for the right to vote.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate during the Russian Revolution after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin. While ruling, he followed the lead of his father Alexander III who was a strong supporter of anti-Semitism and who encouraged violent Pogroms. (He believed any fault of Russia could be blamed on the Jewish.) He was very stubborn in his orthodox religion and believed in supreme autocracy. (Complete dictator-like rule.)
French army officer of Jewish descent whose false imprisonment for accusations of spying for Germany and treason in 1894. Raised issues of anti-semitism that dominated French politics until his release in 1906.
An Irish republican political movement founded in 1905 to promote independence from England and unification of Ireland.
The headline coined by writers Emile Zola and Georges Clemenceau which accused the government of being anti-Semitic, by opposing the government's actions of placing Captain Dreyfus, a Jewish officer, under arrest. This headline sparked the entire anti-Semitic controversy which rocked the Third French Republic. It cited a list of military lies and cover-ups perpetrated by highly placed government officials to created an illusion of Dreyfus's guilt.
A worldwide movement, originating in the 19th century that sought to establish and develop a Jewish nation in Palestine. After 1948, its new function has been to support the state of Israel.