are capable of causing a disease
results when a pathogen enters the body and begins growing
Disease occurs when
tissue function is impaired
6 Portals of Entry
mouth, urinary, genitals, digestive, eyes, and nose
bacteria, helminthes, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and prions
Examples of Bacteria
staph infections, yersinia pestis (plague) and cholera
Examples of Helminthes
Trichinella Spiralis (respiratory paralysis), guinea worm, and Schistomiasis
Examples of Fungi
ringworm, yeast infections or Candida, and histoplasmosis
Examples of Viruses
HIV, herpes, chicken pox, measles, mumps, flu, and rhino virus
Examples of Protozoa
giardia lambia and malaria
Examples of Prions
Crutzfelt-Jacob (mad cow disease)
4 Natural Body Defenses
low pH, anatomical barrier, high salinity, and normal flora
We know that viruses have no metabolism and can't
reproduce apart from the cell
A viral disease with a long latent period
Example of an opportunist infection and the organism
Protozoans are most likely to occur in what environment?
tropical and cause malaria
What is the reservoir for tetanus?
What does Yersinia pestis cause and what is it carried by?
the plague and carried by rodents
A disease caused by direct contact such as a bite
Public Health Vaccination programs work because the disease has
no available host
Sewage treatment and disposal is regulate by the federal government. Why?
to prevent contamination of whole population through improperly processed water
Global surveillance of diseases is monitored by
World Health Organization
3 Steps to Ensure Safe Water
sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination
3 Agencies that are branches of the USPHS
NIH, CDC, and FDA
the study of the occurrence of a disease in a population
an epidemic of infectious disease that spreads through human populations across a large region
Active Acquired Immunity
occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response
Passive Acquired Immunity
a short term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells
We use pesticides to block vector borne diseases such as those spread by what?
supports health related research
investigates disease outbreaks, publishes reports and sponsors education and research
monitors safety of food and medicines
provides international surveillance and control of disease
Penicillin's interfere with what?
cell wall synthesis
What drugs can become toxic if taken over a prolonged period of time?
erythromycins and chloramphenicols
patient can become toxic
discovered by Alexander Fleming
disrupts cell membrane
Antimicrobial Resistance is an ongoing problem. True or False?
have not occurred in humans before, or only in small numbers or occurred in hx but recently recognized as infectious
have occurred previously, greatly declined then re-surfaced
Why is tuberculosis considered to be a re-emerging disease?
due to antimicrobial resistance
This is the only disease that has been eradicated in the world.
Malaria is classified as a re-emerging disease because of what?
drug resistance and fear of vaccination
SARA recognized in 2003 made Malaria a re-emerging or emerging disease?
is caused by a bacteria and improperly maintained plumbing and cooling systems
Infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death in the world today. True or False?
2 Bacterial Agents used in Bioterrorism
plague and anthrax
2 Toxin Agents used in Bioterrorism
botulism and ricin
What is the viral agent used in bioterrorism?
How do you contain the disease once exposed to a Bioterroristic agent?
isolation, patient placement and transport, and cleaning, sterilization, and disinfection
This Bioterroristic agent went through the mail in 2001.
Why would it be necessary to alert the director of a funeral home of the patient dying from a contagious disease or bioterrorism agent?
because the corpse is still contaminated and precautions must be taken
Why do you wash your hand with warm water rather than cold?
dirty hands are oily and oils are more soluble in warm water. So is soap. Warm water works faster and is more effective than cold water for rinsing off germs
What is your best line of defense against infection?
What is the best way to break the chain of infection?