Infectious Diseases Study Guide

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Microorganism

are capable of causing a disease

Infection

results when a pathogen enters the body and begins growing

Disease occurs when

tissue function is impaired

6 Portals of Entry

mouth, urinary, genitals, digestive, eyes, and nose

6 Pathogens

bacteria, helminthes, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and prions

Examples of Bacteria

staph infections, yersinia pestis (plague) and cholera

Examples of Helminthes

Trichinella Spiralis (respiratory paralysis), guinea worm, and Schistomiasis

Examples of Fungi

ringworm, yeast infections or Candida, and histoplasmosis

Examples of Viruses

HIV, herpes, chicken pox, measles, mumps, flu, and rhino virus

Examples of Protozoa

giardia lambia and malaria

Examples of Prions

Crutzfelt-Jacob (mad cow disease)

4 Natural Body Defenses

low pH, anatomical barrier, high salinity, and normal flora

We know that viruses have no metabolism and can't

reproduce apart from the cell

A viral disease with a long latent period

HIV

Example of an opportunist infection and the organism

yeasts

Protozoans are most likely to occur in what environment?

tropical and cause malaria

What is the reservoir for tetanus?

soil

What does Yersinia pestis cause and what is it carried by?

the plague and carried by rodents

A disease caused by direct contact such as a bite

rabies

Public Health Vaccination programs work because the disease has

no available host

Sewage treatment and disposal is regulate by the federal government. Why?

to prevent contamination of whole population through improperly processed water

Global surveillance of diseases is monitored by

World Health Organization

3 Steps to Ensure Safe Water

sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination

3 Agencies that are branches of the USPHS

NIH, CDC, and FDA

Epidemiology

the study of the occurrence of a disease in a population

Pandemic

an epidemic of infectious disease that spreads through human populations across a large region

Active Acquired Immunity

occurs when the person is exposed to a live pathogen, develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response

Passive Acquired Immunity

a short term immunization by the injection of antibodies, such as gamma globulin, that are not produced by the recipient's cells

We use pesticides to block vector borne diseases such as those spread by what?

mosquitoes

NIH

supports health related research

CDC

investigates disease outbreaks, publishes reports and sponsors education and research

FDA

monitors safety of food and medicines

WHO

provides international surveillance and control of disease

Penicillin's interfere with what?

cell wall synthesis

What drugs can become toxic if taken over a prolonged period of time?

erythromycins and chloramphenicols

Erthromycin

patient can become toxic

Acyclovir

genital herpes

Rifampin

tuberculosis

Penicillin

discovered by Alexander Fleming

Amphotericin B

disrupts cell membrane

Amantadine

influenza

Antimicrobial Resistance is an ongoing problem. True or False?

true

Emerging Disease

have not occurred in humans before, or only in small numbers or occurred in hx but recently recognized as infectious

Re-emerging Disease

have occurred previously, greatly declined then re-surfaced

Why is tuberculosis considered to be a re-emerging disease?

due to antimicrobial resistance

This is the only disease that has been eradicated in the world.

smallpox

Malaria is classified as a re-emerging disease because of what?

drug resistance and fear of vaccination

SARA recognized in 2003 made Malaria a re-emerging or emerging disease?

emerging

Legionnaires Disease

is caused by a bacteria and improperly maintained plumbing and cooling systems

Infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death in the world today. True or False?

true

2 Bacterial Agents used in Bioterrorism

plague and anthrax

2 Toxin Agents used in Bioterrorism

botulism and ricin

What is the viral agent used in bioterrorism?

smallpox

How do you contain the disease once exposed to a Bioterroristic agent?

isolation, patient placement and transport, and cleaning, sterilization, and disinfection

This Bioterroristic agent went through the mail in 2001.

anthrax

Why would it be necessary to alert the director of a funeral home of the patient dying from a contagious disease or bioterrorism agent?

because the corpse is still contaminated and precautions must be taken

Why do you wash your hand with warm water rather than cold?

dirty hands are oily and oils are more soluble in warm water. So is soap. Warm water works faster and is more effective than cold water for rinsing off germs

What is your best line of defense against infection?

intact skin

What is the best way to break the chain of infection?

hand washing

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